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Demon

(247 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμων; Dḗmōn). [German version] [1] Uncle of Demosthenes Uncle of  Demosthenes, honoured for the way in which he conducted his office as priest in 386/5 BC (IG II2 1140); possibly trierarch in 373/2 (IG II2 1607, 26; again later IG II2 1609,13; [1. 115] see Demosthenes 3597 II). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Nephew of Demosthenes, Athenian priest Son of Demomeles of the Paeania deme, nephew of  Demosthenes, priest of the urban Asclepius cult (IG II2 4969), probably identical with the rhetor whose extradition was demanded by  Alexander [4] the Great i…

Hieronymus

(2,779 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Et al.
(Ἱερώνυμος; Hierṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander of the Persian fleet 395 BC, politician Athenian, one of  Conon's representatives in his command over the Persian fleet in 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4), campaigned for more expansive politics in Athens (Aristoph. Eccl. 201; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 73). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 533930. [German version] [2] Statesman in Megalopolis around 350 BC Oecist from Mainalus in Arcadia at the founding of Megalopolis ( Megale Polis) in 370 BC (Paus. 8,27,2), was one of the leading s…

Hipparinus

(189 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππαρῖνος; Hipparînos). [German version] [1] Syracusan, father of Dion, commander 406/5 BC Syracusan, father of  Dion [I 1], elected commander in 406/5 BC, together with  Dionysius [1] l. (Plut. Dion 3). Supported the coup of Dionysius and gave him his daughter Aristomache to wed (Aristot. Pol. 5,5,6). Praised by Plato (Ep. 8, 353b). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 1, 222f.; 2, 638f. [German version] [2] Syracusan, son of Dionysius, grandson of H. [1] Syracusan, son of Dionysius [1] and Aristomache, grandson of H. [1]. …

Anaxilaus

(309 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀναξίλαος; Anaxílaos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Rhegium (494-476 BC) Of Rhegium. Belonged to a family which emigrated from Messene to  Rhegium after the second Messenian War at the end of the 7th cent. BC. In 494 BC A. deposed the oligarchy of the 1,000 richest citizens in Rhegium (Aristot. fr. 611,55; Pol. 6,1316 a 38) and established there a personal rulership. A short while later he convinced the Samians and Milesians, who during their flight from the Persians were invited by the Zanclaeans to s…

Historiography

(6,587 words)

Author(s): Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Introduction Judged by the principles of modern historiography, this discipline did not exist in the Ancient Orient. Nevertheless, the past has been treated in the literature in various ways, which indicates that history was an essential source of political and religious identity in the Ancient Orient. Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Mesopotamia Records with a historical orientation do not emerge until the middle of the 3rd millennium BC in the form of royal inscriptions of Lagaš. Deeds are reported f…

Myrsilus

(356 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρσιλος; Mýrsilos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Mytilene, c. end of the 7th cent. BC Pilloried as the ‘tyrant of Mytilene in the fragments of the lyric poet Alcaeus [4] (oldest documentary evidence for the word monarchía ), M. is therefore ranked by Strabo alongside Melanchrus and Pittacus (Str. 13,2,3). His name points to Lydia (Hdt. 1,7 and he was possibly part of the Cleanactid family (schol. to Alcaeus 112,23 Lobel-Page = Voigt). After Melanchrus' overthrow he became a tyrant and survived a conspiracy…

Timoleon

(867 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τιμολέων/ Timoléōn). General and ruler in Sicily, originally from Corinth, son of Timodemus and Demariste. In 365 BC, T. approved of the assassination of his brother Timophanes, the tyrant of Corinth (Plut. T. 2 f.; Nep. T. 1; Diod. Sic. 16,65,2-9), retiring after that from the public life for almost 20 years. At the request of the Syracusans, who were threatened by Dionysius [2] II and Carthage, he was sent by the Corinthians as a general in 345, landing with 10 ships and 700 mer…

Diyllus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίυλλος; Díyllos) of Athens. Greek historian of the first half of the 3rd cent. BC, son of the atthidographer Phanodemus. Author of Historíai in 27 bks., a universal history in two parts (cf. FGrH 73 T 1 and 2), which continued  Ephorus and covered the period from the 3rd Sacred War (357/6) to the death of Cassander's son Philip. D. was continued in his turn by Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78 T 1). According to Plutarch, D., who wrote entirely in the ‘tragic’ manner (Plut. Mor. 345E and F), was ‘not insignificant in historiography’ (Plut. Mor. 862B = T4). …

Cratippus

(339 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Κράτιππος; Krátippos). [German version] [1] Of Athens, contemporary of Thucydides, continued Th.'s work of Athens. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De Thucydide 16), he was roughly a contemporary of  Thucydides and also the one who continued his work. The table of contents from his historical work which spanned at least to 394 BC is recorded in Plutarch (mor. 345c-e). Some researchers (e.g. [1; 2; 4; 5; 6]) claim that C. was a significant historian of the 4th cent. BC and the author of the   Hellēnikà Oxyrhýnchia , others (e.g. Ed. Schwarz, Ed. Meyer…

Atthis

(489 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτθίς; Atthís). Atthís, plural Atthídes, refers to Athenian local histories; Atthidographers are the authors of these works. The Atthides were antiquarian rather than historically oriented; in an annalistic and chronicle-like representation they provided information about myths, religion, history, culture and literature, as well as the topography of Athens and Attica. In gene…

Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2).…

Hippostratus

(186 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππόστρατος; Hippóstratos). [German version] [1] Seducer of Periboea Son of Amarynceus who seduced  Periboea, daughter of Hipponous (Apollod. 1,74; Hes. fr. 12 M-W). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) [German version] [2] Nephew of Attalus [1] Nephew of  Attalus [1], brother of  Cleopatra, after whose death he was executed by  Alexander [4] the Great (cf. Iust. 11,5,1); not to be identified with other men by the same name. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 390. [German version] [3] H. Soter Indo-Greek king in Gandhara in the 1st cent. BC One of the later I…

Menodotus

(550 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδοτος; Mēnódōtos). [German version] [1] M. of Perinthus Historian, c. 200 BC In about 200 BC, he wrote a ‘Greek History ( Hellenikaì Pragmateîai) in 15 books, probably a continuation of the work of Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78) and dealing with events after 218/17 (Diod. Sic. 26,4). He may be identical (see [1]) with M. of Samos (which was considered a colony of Perinthus). The latter was the author of a periegesis ( periēgētḗs ) on ‘Notabilia of Samos ( Tôn katà tḕn Sámon endóxōn anagraphḗ), from which Athenaeus (15, 671-699) relates an extensive passage on the pre-Hellenic h…

Teucer

(617 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Τεῦκρος/ Teûkros, Latin Teucer). [German version] [1] Mythical king in the Troad Oldest mythical king in the Troad, son of Scamander and Idaea [2]; he gave both his daughters, Neso and Bat(i)eia (Arisbe), in marriage to Dardanus [1] (Dardanidae). Bat(i)eia bore Dardanus a s…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murdered…

Panormus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Πάνορμος; Pánormos). [German version] [1] Harbour on the coast of Karia Harbour on the coast of Karia (Stadiasmus maris magni 285; 287; 294 with contradictory details) between Miletus [2] and Myndus, located at a distance of 80 stadia (14.8 km) from them, therefore near (Aşağı) Gölköy, which is the location also assumed for Caryanda, near the natural harbour of the Türkbükü bay or further to the west at the Ağaçbaşı-Limanı bay (Paşa Limanı). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. P. (1), RE 18,3, 654  G.E. Bean, J.M. Cook, The Halicarnassus Peninsula, in: ABSA 50,…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hö…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Menemachus

(174 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μενέμαχος/ Menémachos). [German version] [1] Pontic general, 71 BC Pontic general. When Mithradates [6] VI and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus faced one another at the Lycus in northern Bithynia in 71 BC, Mithradates had a unit under M. and Myron attack a Roman supply column under M. Fabius Hadrianus. The king tried to explain its heavy defeat (the two leaders and almost all the men fell) by the lack of experience of the generals (Plut. Lucullus 17; Sall. fr. IV 8 M.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] Cavalry leader of Tigranes II of Armenia, 67 BC Cavalry leader of Tigranes II …

Charon

(952 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Χάρων; Chárōn). [German version] [1] Ferry-man of the Underworld Poetic coining from χαροπός ( charopós) ‘dark-gazing’ [1. 309]; probably originally a euphemistic term for death [2. 229f.; 3. 32f.], and personified in epic poetry during the 6th cent. at the earliest (Orpheus: Serv. Aen. 6,392; Minyas) [1. 305,1; 2. 229]; not mentioned in Homer; earliest attested in the Minyas epic (PEG I: beginning 5th cent.?); thereafter popular as a burlesque figure, especially in Athenian dramatic poetry (Eur. HF, Alc.; A…
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