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Aristophanes

(5,353 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστοφάνης; Aristophánēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Son of  Nicophemus, a confidant of  Conon. Repeatedly chorēgós and trierarch. In 393 BC he was supposed to win  Dionysius I of Syracuse on Conon's order as an ally for Athens using a marriage alliance with  Evagoras of Salamis. When Athens sent Evagoras 10 triremes against the Persians in 390/89, A. helped in financing them and participated as a delegate. Returning from this unsuccessful campaign, A. and his father were executed by means of the apagoge and their fortune was confisc…

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Crates

(2,486 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης; Krátēs). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies, 5th cent. BC Athenian, the poet of the Old Comedy who began giving performances c. 450 BC [1. test. 7]. Previously an actor with  Cratinus [1], [1. test. 2 and 3]. Certain sources claim that he wrote seven plays [1. test. 1 and 2], other sources claim eight [1. test. 4]. Altogether nine titles of plays have survived (although the Μέτοικοι ‘The Metoikoi’ and Πεδῆται ‘The Prisoners’ may be wrongly attributed to him). On the list of Dionysian winners, C. is list…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Aristodemus

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόδημος; Aristódēmos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, one of the three Heraclids who led the Dorians into the Peloponnese. According to the widely known version of the myth (Pl. Leg. 3,692 bk.; Apollod. 2,173; Paus. 3,1,6), A. died before reaching the Peloponnese, leaving twin sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, who then received Laconia and became the founding fathers of both the royal houses of Sparta. According to Spartan tradition, A. himself led the Spar…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth following a serious dispute, and, on the instruction of the Delphian oracle, led colonists to lower Italy. In about 733 BC, he founded  Syracusae in Sicily (Thuc. 6,3,2; Str. 6,2,4; Plut. Mor. 772e-773b).  Colonization Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16 H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. [German version] [2] Politician from C…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Artemidorus

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Ἀρτεμίδωρος; Artemídōros). [German version] [1] Indo-Greek King in 1st cent. BC. Coins are the only evidence of his existence, middle Indian Artemitora. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110, 316-318. [German version] [2] Elegiac poet Writer of elegies Περὶ Ἔρωτος in which, among others, the katasterismós of the dolphin was narrated. He had helped Poseidon win Amphitrite as his wife (Ps.-Eratosth. Catasterismus 31 S. 158 Robert, cf. schol. ad Germanicus, Aratea, S. 92,2ff. Breysig = SH 214). Even if this is only a hy…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…
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