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Cephalus

(728 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Κέφαλος, Képhalos). [German version] [1] Athenian hero Athenian hero, eponym of the Attic deme  Cephale (north-west of Thoricus) and founding father of the Cephalid lineage (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 34; Hsch. s.v. Κεφαλίδαι). C. is regarded a) as the son of the Athenian king  Pandarus (Pandium) or of  Hermes and Herse, the daughter of Cecrops; or b) as the son of the Phocian king Deion(eus) and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus, whereby he becomes the brother of Aenetus, Phylacus, Actor and Asteropeia. C. is an exceptional hunter with breathtaking beauty. When hunting on the slope…

Leodamas

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Λεωδάμας; Leōdámas). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, c. 400 BC The Athenian L. of Acharnae, a skilful orator (Aristot. Rh. 2,23,25 1400a 31-35), was rejected at his dokimasia of 382 BC to assess his candidacy for the eponymous archonship ( Archontes) because of his political role prior to 403 (Lys. 26,13f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 9076 Davies 13921, p. 523 LGPN 2, s.v. Leodamas (2) Traill, PAA 605085. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 4th cent. BC Son of Erasistratus of Acharnae, outstanding Athenian rhetor, student of Isocrates (Plut. Mor…

Aristogiton

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἀριστογείτων; Aristogeítōn). [German version] [1] Athenian 'Tyrant killer' (514 BC) A. and  Harmodius, both of the family of Gephyraei, plotted with others to kill the tyrant  Hippias and his brother  Hipparchus at the Panathenaic festival of 514 BC. The plot miscarried; only Hipparchus was assassinated, Hippias remained unharmed. His tyranny was only ended in 511/510 BC, with Sparta's military support. Harmodius was killed immediately after the assassination. A. was arrested, tortured and then executed …

Leocrates

(258 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωκράτης; Leōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Strategos in 479 and 459/8 BC Son of Stroebus, one of the Athenian stratēgoí in the battle of Plataea in 479 BC, is said to have prevented the conflict between the Athenians and Spartans over the erection of the tropaion (Plut. Aristides 20,1). Afterwards he dedicated a votive offering at Athens (epigram of Simonides [1. no. 312]; IG I3 983). Again elected stratēgós in 459/8, L. defeated the Aeginetes in a naval battle, establishing a blockade around the island (Thuc. 1,105,2-3; Diod. Sic. 11,78,3-4) [2]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. …

Philippides

(307 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Φιλιππίδης/ Philippídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Athenian, follower of Philip II (Philippus [4] II), mocked by the comic poets Alexis, Aristophon [4] and Menander [4] (Ath. 6,230c; 238c; 11,503a; 12,552d-f). After two convictions for proposing illegal measures, as charged by Hyperides in 336 BC or between 336 and 334, he was again prosecuted on such a charge ( paranómōn graphḗ ) for his proposal to grant honours to the próhedroi (Hyp. Or. 4), among whom Philip [4] II had been honoured. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography J. Engels, Stu…

Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogue c. 295 BC Influential and active Athenian demagogue, supporting  Demetrius [2] Poliorketes. In 295 BC he proposed that Piraeus and Munychia be handed over to Demetrius and, probably in 292/1, that the ‘saviour’ Demetrius be asked for an oracle (Plut. Demetrius 13,1-3; 34,1-7).  Athens;  Kolakes Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Habicht, 94; 98-100 Id., Unt. zur polit. Ge…

Neaera

(250 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Νέαιρα; Néaira). [German version] [1] Helios' mistress Helios' mistress, mother of the cowherds tending their father's herd on Thrinacie (Hom. Od. 12,133). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Strymon's mistress Strymon's mistress and mother of Euadne, who was spouse of Argos [I 1] (Apollod. 2,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Pereus Daughter of Pereus, spouse of Aleus [1], mother of Auge [2] (Apollod. 3,102). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Spouse of Aetas Spouse of Aetas (alsoIdyia; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,240). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Ctesiphon

(390 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin)
(Κτησιφῶν; Ktésiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian, supporter of Demosthenes [2], 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Leosthenes from Anaphlystus, supporter of  Demosthenes [2], whom he had successfully, though technically pre-empting official endorsement ( Euthynae), proposed in 337/6 for a crowning.  Aeschines [2] lodged a protest against this that was unambiguously rejected in 330 at the ‘crown trial’ (Aeschin. In Ctes.; Dem. Or. 18; Plut. Mor. 840C and 846A). C. was also one of the emissaries to queen Cleopatra in Epirus (Aeschin. In Ctes. 242). Engels, Johannes (C…

Dinarchus

(546 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δείναρχος; Deínarchos). [German version] A. Life Attic orator, born about 361 BC in Corinth, son of Sostratus, died after 292. The source of information on his life is the (incompletely transmitted) treatise De Dinarcho of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who relied in particular on a lost speech by D. (‘Against Proxenus’); the other lives (Ps.-Plut., Photius, Suda) depend on Dionysius. D. relocated in his younger years ( c. 340/38) to Athens, lived there as a metic and had links to the Peripatetic school. After about 336/5 he was active as a  logographer. Despite his successful activity …

Demophilus

(250 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Δημόφιλος; Dēmóphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, mid-4th cent. BC Athenian orator who, in 346/45 BC, proposed the scrutiny of citizen lists which resulted in loss of citizenship for many (Aeschin. In Tim. 77,86; Androtion FGrH 324 F 52 = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 52; Sch. Aeschin. In Tim. 77) [1; 2]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian prosecutor of Aristotle 323 BC Athenian, accused  Aristotle in 323 BC (Diog. Laert. 5,5; Ath. 696a) of asébeia,impiety, because of the hymn and epigram to Hermias of Atarneus (cf. [3]). D. was successful in…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Menecles

(381 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μενεκλῆς/ Meneklês). [German version] [1] Athenian lawyer, 350 and 347 BC Athenian. In 350 and 347 BC he was synegoros for Boeotus ( Mantitheus [3]) and his mother Plangon in two lawsuits (Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,9f.; 32). Allegedly a sycophant, Menecles was himself accused by Ninus's son. The prosecution speech (Din. fr. 33 Conomis) was attributed to Dinarchus. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Beilagen 1885, 211-226 PA 9908 Traill, PAA 643135. [German version] [2] Greek historian and antiquarian, 2nd cent. BC Menecles from Barca in northern Africa, a Greek histo…

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Polyeuctus

(609 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολύευκτος/ Polýeuktos). [German version] [1] Son of the Athenian Themistocles Third son of Themistocles and his first wife Archippe, daughter of Lysander of Alopece (who adopted the second son, Diocles); nothing is known of his life. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 6669  R. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles. A Historical Commentary, 1980, ad 32,1  Traill, PAA, 778325. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Son of Sostratus of the Sphettus deme, Athenian rhetor of the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC, in the circle of Demost…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias) Around 350 BC successor of Eubulus as tyrant over  Atarneus and  Assos (Diog. Laert. 5,3), possibly pupil of Plato (Str. 13,1,57; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 250; by contrast Pl. Ep. 6,322e). Along with other philosophers he brought Aristotle to the court and married him to his niece  Pythias. After the Persians had reconquered Egypt in 343/342, H. considered his region to be under threat and contacted  Philippus II (…

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …
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