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Prologue

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(ὁ πρόλογος/ ho prólogos, Lat. prologus, prologium). [German version] A. Concept In his list of the individual elements (μέρη/ mérē) of tragedy in the 'Poetics', Aristotle defines the prologue as a complete section of a tragedy preceding the chorus' párodos (Aristot. Poet. 13,1452b 22 f.) [9. 471 f.]. However, the term prólogos was already in use in the technical sense before Aristotle: in 'The Frogs', Aristophanes subtitles the prologue the 'first part of a tragedy' (Aristoph. Ran. 1120: τὸ πρῶτον τῆς τραγῳδίας μέρος/ tò prôton tês tragōidías méros), which, however, can have ref…

Drama

(450 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Derived from the verb δρᾶν ( drân), predominantly attested in Attic, the noun δρᾶμα ( drâma; ‘action’, ‘deed’ in a general sense) is the antonym of ‘what is experienced’ (πάθος/ páthos) (Aesch. Ag. 533); it can also mean ‘duty’, ‘task’ (Pl. Tht. 150a, Resp. 451c ). For the most part, though, drama is a technical term meaning ‘theatrical play’ (tragedy, comedy, satyr play) in the context of its performance (Aristoph. Ran. 920); it appears in the plural form in the title of Aristophanes' play Δράματα ἢ Νίοβος ( Drā́mata ē Níobos; fr. 289-298 PCG III2; fr. 299-304 PCG III2), in T…

Euphantus

(61 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] of Olynthus (TrGF 1, 118; FGrH 74), end of the 4th, beginning of the 3rd cent. BC; according to Diog. Laert. 2,110 teacher of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, to whom he dedicated a work ‘On the Rule of Kings’ (Περὶ βασιλείας; Perì basileías). Writer of a history of the Diadochi period and of several successful tragedies. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Greek tragedy

(3,204 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Antiquity and Middle Ages (CT) The following article is only concerned with the performance of plays by the three main Greek tragedians and the various tendencies of their productions in modern times. It is not possible in this context to deal with adaptations, new arrangements or reworkings, nor with the reception of Greek tragedy as a whole in the history of European cultural and intellectual history. The seminal year marking a decisive change in the practice of performing dramatic plays in Athens was 386 BC, bec…

Euripides

(4,470 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Εὐριπίδης / Euripídēs) [German version] [1] Tragedian The Attic Tragedian. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Biography The most important evidence comes from the vita passed down to us in several MSS, the  Marmor Parium, the  Suda, Gell. NA 15,20 and the vita by  Satyrus. Only a few details of E.'s life can be considered certain: born between 485 and 480 BC on Salamis, son of a Mnesarchus or Mnesarchides. He took part in the Great Dionysia for the first time in 455, achieving his first victory in 441. During his lifet…

Epirrhematic

(88 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Derived from tó epírrhēma (τό ἐπίρρημα, ‘that which is said afterwards’), i.e. the speech following a lyric part. The succession of lyrical and spoken (or rather recited) parts is referred to as an epirrhematic composition. Aeschylus frequently used this form in semi-lyrical  amoibaia. In the Old Comedy, epirrhematic composition can be found in the  parabasis and in the epirrhematic agon. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography Th. Gelzer, Der epirrhematische Agon bei Aristophanes, 1960 B. Zimmermann, Unt. zur Form und dramatischen Technik der Ar…

Pythangelus

(21 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πυθάγγελος; Pythángelos). Tragedian of the 5th cent. BC, mentioned only in Aristoph. Ran. 87. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Sinis

(85 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Greek Σίνις/Sínis, robber). One of the scoundrels who are killed by Theseus in their own vicious manner ( e.g. Bacchyl. 18,19-22): S., a son of Poseidon with the cognomen Pityokámptēs ('spruce bender'), is a brigand on the Corinthian Isthmus who ties the arms and legs of travellers to spruce trees that he bent down before. When he lets the trees shoot up, the victims are torn apart. He dies in the same fashion following the principle of Talion Law. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Messenger scenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Longer rhesis in drama, in which other characters or the chorus are informed, either behind or off scene, of events that have taken place before or during the dramatic action and that could not represented on stage either because of the means or the conventions of Attic drama. These reports, furnished with all available rhetorical means, are usually presented by a main or a supporting figure (Eur. Heraclid. 389ff; Soph. El. 680ff.), but often by a nameless messenger specifically introduced for this purpose (ἄγγελοι/ ángeloi or ἔξαγγελοι/ éxangeloi, if the message co…

Sosiphanes

(83 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σωσιφάνης; Sōsiphánēs). [German version] [1] Tragedian, died 336/333 or 324/321 BC S. of Syracuse, tragedian (TrGF I 92), died 336/333 or 324/321 BC. The Suda (σ 863) credits him with 73 plays and 7 victories. Meléagros is attested as a title. Inclusion in the Pleiad of tragic poets (TrGF T 1) relates to S. [2]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Tragedian, born 306/5 BC Tragedian (TrGF I 103), born 306/5 BC, numbered among the Pleiad of tragic poets. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Philicus

(114 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φίλικος; Phílikos) of Corcyra (Corfu). Poet and tragedian, priest of Dionysus at Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC). Member of the Pleias, often confused with Philiscus [4] of Aegina (TrGF I 89; I 104 T1, T4). Nothing survives of the 24 tragedies attributed to him. A large section is preserved of a hymn to Demeter in stichic catalectic choriambic hexameters (SH 676-680). In it, Demeter is consoled for the loss of her daughter with the prospect of cultic honours at Eleusis and by the wit of the maiden Iambe (in direct speech). Zimmermann, Bernhar…

Critias

(386 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Κριτίας; Kritías) of Athens, born about 460 BC, descended from an old Attic noble family, on his mother's side he was an uncle of  Plato. Like  Alcibiades [3] he belonged to the circle around  Socrates. Politically he belonged to the antidemocratic forces: in 415 he was accused of participating in the mutilation of the  Herms, in 411 he was a member of the oligarchic council of the 400 ( Tetrakosioi). After the democratic restoration he stayed in Thessaly until 404, after the Athe…

Greek comedy

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Antiquity and Middle Ages (CT) In contrast to Greek tragedies, where repeat performances had been officially permitted since 386 BC, there is no epigraphical evidence of any repeat performances of 'ancient' comedies prior to 339 BC. It appears, though, that not the 5th cent.-comedies, but those by contemporary authors or by poets of the immediate past, i.e. those from the periods of the Middle and New Comedy, were performed again.The Old Comedy of the 5th…

Parodos

(451 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ πάροδος/ hē párodos, literally 'entrance, entry song of the chorus'). In his list of components common to all tragedies, Aristotle [6] defined parodos in his Poetics (12, 1452 b22f.) as the first chorus part, with an additional sense of 'entry song' or 'entry speech' (cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 1123 a23f.). However, structural analysis should not be limited to rigid, schematic definitions, but also consider the construction and development of dramatic action (σύστασις τῶν πραγμάτων, ibid.). In Attic tragedy, the parodos may open the play (Aesch. Pers. and Supp…

Intrigue

(195 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (τὸ μηχάνημα, τὸ τέχνημα; tò mēchánēma, tò téchnēma). Already Hom. Od., bks. 19-24 shows the close link between recognition scenes ( Anagnorisis) and intrigue that is typical of Attic tragedy. Locus classicus is Aesch. Cho. Intrigue is missing from almost none of Euripides' plays, so that Aristoph. Thesm. 94 can rightly call him the ‘master of the intrigue play’. Euripides composes anagnṓrisis-intrigue dramas especially in his later work. After the recognition, rescue is effected by an intrigue (e.g. Eur. IT 1017ff.; Eur. Hel. 1034ff.). In Ion there is a playful …

Exodos

(280 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἔξοδος, generally ‘departure’, ‘end’). According to Aristot. Poet. 1452b 21f., the exodos is the part of a tragedy which is not followed by a chorus ( Stasimon) (concluding act). Moving from this broad definition, it probably makes more sense to define the exodos in a narrower sense as the exit of the chorus at the end of a drama (cf. Aristoph. Vesp. 582). The most frequent form in tragedy is the ‘ ecce conclusion’: the deed and the doer are presented in a pathos-laden concluding scene (initially usually indirectly by means of a messenger's report […

Katharsis

(608 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ κάθαρσις; hē kátharsis). Katharsis, derived from καθαίρειν ( kathaírein, purge), generally means any type of purgation and elimination of visible (dirt) and invisible uncleanliness (religious defilement: míasma, cf. Hdt. 1,35; Aristot. Poet. 17,1455b 15). In the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC the term was used as medical term for the removal of harmful substances from the human body or soul (LSJ, s.v. κ. II). The cultic-ritual and medical-psychological meanings have merged in Aristotle's concept of katharsis, which of old has been a matter of scholarly con…

Mesatus

(23 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Greek tragedian, who enjoyed success at the Dionysia several times after 468 BC (TrGF I 11). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Morychus

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Tragedian from the closing years of the 5th cent. BC; according to the scholia on Aristophanes he was known for his gluttony (TrGF I 30 T 1-3). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Polychares

(21 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πολυχάρης/ Polychárēs). Early 4th cent. BC poet, uncertain whether of tragedy or dithyramb (DID B 6). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Polites

(156 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολίτης/ Polítēs). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus Son of the Trojan king Priamus and Hecabe. During the Trojan War, he saves his wounded brother Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,533 ff.). The goddess Iris appears once in his guise (ibid. 2,786 ff.). He is killed at the altar in the palace of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,526 ff.). According to Cato (Orig. fr. 54 HRR), he reaches Latium with Aeneas (Aeneas [1]) and founds the city of Politorium. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Companion of Odysseus According to Paus. 6,6,7 ff., one of the companions of Odysseus; r…

Sclerias

(49 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Σκληρίας/ Sklērías) or Sclerius (Σκλήριος/ Sklḗrios), tragic poet cited by Stobaeus (TrGF I 213), dates unknown. It is unlikely that the Skolion (PMG 890) which only Stobaeus ascribes to S. (TrGF I 213 F 5) is in fact by him (testimonies in PMG 651). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Tragedy

(5,074 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Baier, Thomas
I. Greek [German version] A. Definition, origin, early forms The explanations for the term τραγῳδία ( tragōidía) are controversial; equally controversial is the reconstruction of the genesis of tragedy from cult rituals over pre-literary choral performances to the literary genre of the 5th cent. BC. The greatest problem is to reconcile Aristotle's [6] brief history of the genre in the Poetics (Aristot. Poet. 4,1449a 9-31) with anthropological and ethnological considerations. Aristotle thought the literary form evolved gradually from short myths (plots) a…

Polemaios

(326 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος). [English version] [1] Makedonischer Heerführer um 300 v. Chr. (in den Hss. auch Ptolemaios und Polemon; richtig aber P., IG II2 469 und IK 28,2). Sohn eines P., Makedone, Neffe des Antigonos [1]. P. war verm. bereits unter Alexandros [4] d.Gr. Offizier im maked. Heer, evtl. sōmatophýlax (Hoftitel B.) des Philippos Arridaios [4] (Arr. succ. 1,38). Er ging 319 v. Chr. als Geisel des Antigonos [1] zu Eumenes [1] (Plut. Eumenes 10), wurde 314 als General nach Kappadokia und zur Sicherung des Hellespontos ausgeschickt (Diod. 19,57,4;…

Meletos

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος). [English version] [1] Athener, ca. 415 v.Chr. Athener. Im J. 415 v.Chr. als Beteiligter an der Mysterien-Profanation und Hermenverstümmelung denunziert (Hermokopidenfrevel), floh M. aus Attika und wurde in Abwesenheit zum Tode verurteilt (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Vielleicht identisch mit M., dem Urenkel des Alkmaioniden Megakles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825  Traill, PAA 639290. [English version] [2] Ankläger des Andokides, 400 v.Chr. Athener, erhielt mit Sokrates und anderen im J. 404 v.Chr. von den 30 Tyrannen ( triákonta

Agathon

(528 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἀγάθων). [English version] [1] att. Tragiker, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Attischer Tragiker, ca. 455-ca. 401 v. Chr., Sohn eines Tisamenos (Schol. Lukian. Rhetorum Praeceptor 11). Nach Athen. 5,217b errang er seinen ersten Sieg an den Lenäen 416. Der histor. Rahmen von Platons Symposion ist die Nachfeier dieses Sieges. 411 wird er in den Thesmophoriazusai des Aristophanes verspottet, in demselben Jahr von Antiphon [4] vor Gericht verteidigt. Vor 405 (vgl. Aristoph. Ran. 83-5, Ail. var. 13,4) verließ er wie Euripides Athen und begab sich an den Hof des Makedo…

Harmodios

(180 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁρμόδιος). [English version] [1] H. aus Athen Tyrannentöter, 514 v.Chr. verschwor sich mit Aristogeiton [1] und anderen, um die Tyrannen Hippias [1] und Hipparchos [1] bei den Panathenäen 514 v.Chr. zu ermorden. Es gelang ihnen jedoch nur, Hipparchos zu töten. H. fand bei dem Attentat den Tod (Hdt. 5,55-58; Thuk. 1,20; 6,54-59; Aristot. Ath. pol. 18). Für Thukydides war die Verschwörung ausschließlich persönlich motiviert: H. und seine Schwester hätten Demütigungen hinnehmen müssen, nachdem H. die homoe…

Lysistratos

(122 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Λυσίστρατος). [English version] [1] Tragiker aus Chalkis, 1. Jh. v. Chr. aus Chalkis. Tragiker, siegte nach 85 v.Chr. an den Amphiaraia (Amphiaraos) und Romaia in Oropos. Schriften sind nicht erhalten. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [English version] [2] Bronzebildner aus Sikyon, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Bronzebildner aus Sikyon, Bruder und Mitarbeiter des Lysippos [2]. L. habe durch Gipsabgüsse von Lebenden die Porträtähnlichkeit verbessert, nach Tonmodellen gearbeitet und Gipsabgüsse von Statuen hergestellt. An Werken nennt die Überl. nur eine…

Publius

(123 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Häufiges röm. Praenomen mit der Sigle P.; ältester Beleg Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; ca. 500 v. Chr.; Lapis Satricanus), danach griech. Πόπλιος. Der Name gehört etym. zu populus (“Heer” > “Volk”). Die Herleitung aus dem Etr. muß abgelehnt werden, denn das seltene etr. Puplie wurde aus einer ital. Sprache übernommen. Die Umbildung von poplico- zu pūblico- (nach pūbēs) wurde auch auf das Praen. und sein Derivat, das Gent. Pūblīlius, übertragen. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] Tragiker Griechisch schreibender Tragiker aus Rom, belegte ca. 85 v. Chr. an de…

Griechische Tragödie

(2,647 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG [English version] A. Antike und Mittelalter (RWG) Der folgende Beitrag widmet sich nur den Aufführungen der Stücke der drei griech. Tragiker und den unterschiedlichen Tendenzen der Inszenierungen in der Neuzeit. Bearbeitungen, Um- oder Neudichtungen und die Rezeption der griech. T. insgesamt in der europ. Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte können in diesem Zusammenhang nicht behandelt werden. Das Epochenjahr, das einen einschneidenden Wandel in der Aufführungspraxis von Dramen in Athen markiert, ist 386 v. Chr., als …

Aischylos

(3,387 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[English version] [1] aus Athen att. Tragiker, 5. Jh. v. Chr. der Tragiker. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [English version] A. Biographie Wichtigste Zeugnisse zur Biographie (zit. nach TrGF III) sind die Vita, das Marmor Parium und die Suda (s. v. Αἰσχύλος, αι 357 Adler): Geb. 525/4 v. Chr. in Eleusis (T 1,1; 8; 98,3), Sohn eines Euphorion (T 1,1 f.; 2,1; 162,1), aus dem Adelsgeschlecht der Eupatriden. An den Perserkriegen nahm er 490 bei Marathon (T 16) und 480 bei Salamis (T 14) teil. Auf Einladung des Tyrannen Hieron inszenierte er die 472 aufgeführten Persai nochmals in Syrakus (T…

Iophon

(238 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἰοφῶν) [English version] [1] Sohn des Peisistratos aus zweiter Ehe Sohn des Peisistratos aus zweiter Ehe mit der Argiverin Timonassa, Tochter des Gorgilos und Witwe des Kypseliden Archinos von Ambrakia. Von I. ist im Gegensatz zu seinem Bruder Hegesistratos [1] nur der Name überliefert ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,3; Plut. Cato maior 24,8; Hdt. 5,94f.). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography L. de Libero, Die Archaische Tyrannis, 1996, 88  Traill, PAA 537360. [English version] [2] att. Tragiker, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Tragiker aus Athen (TrGF I 22), Sohn des Sophokles; verfaßte 50…

Phanes

(548 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φάνης). [English version] [1] Urgott der orphischen Kosmogonie Griech. “der Leuchtende, Erhellende, Erscheinende”; “derjenige, welcher (es) offenbar ist (macht)” (OF fr. 56; 61; 109). Lichthafter (Nonn. Dion. 9,141), goldgeflügelter (OF fr. 54; 78; 87,2) Urgott der orphischen Kosmogonie (OF fr. 78; 86; Weltschöpfung). Diese Kosmogonie, von einem Hieronymos und Hellanikos aufgezeichnet (OF fr. 54), ist zu scheiden von derjenigen in den Hieroí Lógoi, einem orph. Gedicht in 14 Rhapsodien (OF Testimonia 174; 196). Ph. ist nicht urspr. sein Name, wie das ältes…

Kleophon

(205 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν). [English version] [1] Athenischer Demagoge in der Zeit nach 411 v.Chr Athenischer Demagoge in der Zeit nach 411 v.Chr., Leiermacher, offenbar nicht sehr vermögend (Lys. 19,48). K. führte 410 die diobelía , eine Unterhaltszahlung an bedürftige Bürger, ein ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 28,3). Nach Diodor (13,53,2) erwirkte er 410/409, nach [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 34,1 im J. 406/5 die Ablehnung von Friedensverhandlungen mit Sparta, doch könnten dies Dubletten seiner Maßnahmen 405/4 sein, als er im blockierte…

Kommos

(353 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] [1] Hafen auf Kreta Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Kolonisation (Κόμμος). Hafenort an der Südküste Kretas, nahe Matala und Phaistos gelegen. In min. Zeit diente das um 2000 v.Chr. gegründete K. wohl bis zu seiner Zerstörung um 1200 v.Chr. als Hafen der Palastanlage von Phaistos. Nach ca. 200jähriger Verödung erfolgte um 1000 v.Chr. eine vermutlich auf phöniz. Impuls zurückgehende Neuansiedlung, die bis zum 4. Jh.v.Chr. zunehmend gräzisiert w…

Phainippos

(313 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φαίνιππος). [English version] [1] att. Gutsbesitzer, um 320 v. Chr. Das Landgut des Ph., Sohn des Kallippos, ist in einer attischen Gerichtsrede aus der Zeit um 320 v.Chr. beschrieben (Ps.-Demosth. or. 42). In dem antídosis -Verfahren verlangt der Kläger, daß Ph. an seiner Stelle auf die Liste der dreihundert reichsten Athener Bürger, die am stärksten mit Liturgien belastet wurden, gesetzt werden sollte (ebd. 42,3f.). Der Besitz des Ph. war aus zwei Gründen außergewöhnlich: Einerseits war Ph. der einzige Erbe seines Vaters und zugleich seines Großvaters müt…

Griechische Komödie

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG [English version] A. Antike und Mittelalter (RWG) Im Unterschied zur griech. Trag., bei der Wiederaufführungen seit 386 v. Chr. offiziell zugelassen waren, sind inschr. Wiederaufführungen “alter” K. erst seit 339 v. Chr. bezeugt. Wie es scheint, wurden jedoch nicht K. des 5. Jh., sondern Stücke zeitgenössischer Autoren oder von Dichtern der jüngsten Vergangenheit, also aus der Phase der Mittleren oder Neuen K., wieder aufgeführt. Die Alte K. des 5. Jh. mit der für s…

Mamercus

(147 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC (Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos). Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC mentioned in Plut. Timoleon 31,1 (TrGF I 87). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Praenomen Praenomen exclusively used by the Patrician gens of the Aemilii (also used there as a cognomen, but never for freedmen); shortened to Mam.; Greek Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos. First attested for the father of Aemilius [I 25], traced back to M., son of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,18f.). The name also occurs in Oscan (Μαμερεκς/ Mamereks) and in Etruscan ( Mamarce, Mamerce, Mamurke, 7th-5t…

Phaenippus

(346 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φαίνιππος; Phaínippos). [German version] [1] Attic landowner, around 320 BC The country estate of P., son of Callippus, is described in an Attic court speech around 320 BC (Ps.-Dem. Or. 42). In the antídosis proceedings the plaintiff demands that P. should be placed on the list of the three hundred richest Athenian citizens, who bore the heaviest burden of the financial cost of liturgies ( ibidem 42,3f.), instead of himself. P.’ property was unusual for two reasons: on the one hand, P. was the only heir of his father and, at the same time, of his grandfather on h…

Cleophon

(216 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν; Kleophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC, lyre-maker, apparently not very wealthy (Lys. 19.48). In 410 C. introduced the   diobelía , a maintenance payment to needy citizens ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 28,3). According to Diodorus (13,53,2) he brought about in 410/409, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 34,1 in 406/5, the rejection of peace negotiations with Sparta, though these could have been duplicates of his measures in…

Sosistratus

(321 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σωσίστρατος/ Sōsístratos). [German version] [1] Oligarch in Syracuse, second half of the 4th cent. BC From c. 330 BC leader with Heraclides of the Oligarchy of the Six Hundred in Syracusae. Although he was suspected by Agathocles [2] of aspirations to tyranny, his successes in the war of Croton with the Bruttii confirmed his position in Syracuse (Diod. 19,3,3-5). After a military failure against Rhegium he was banished from Syracuse c. 322 (Diod. 19,4,3), but he and his followers were able to return under Acestoridas; after Agathocles seized power in 316/5, howe…

Agathon

(566 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἀγάθων; Agáthōn). [German version] [1] Attic tragedian Attic tragedian, c. 455- c. 401 BC, son of Tisamenus (Schol. Lucian. Rhetorum Praeceptor 11). According to Ath. 5,217b he achieved his first Lenaean victory in 416. The post-victory celebration of this win forms the historical background to Plato's Symposium. In 411 he is made fun of in the Thesmophoriazusae of Aristophanes, and in the same year he is defended in court by Antiphon [4]. Like Euripides, he left Athens before 405 (cf. Aristoph. Ran. 83-5, Ael. VH 13,4) and made his way to the court…

Timocles

(419 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Τιμοκλῆς/ Timoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian author of comedies, 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Important Athenian author of comedies in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC to whom the Suda [1 test. 1] attributes 20 plays (divided into two authors by the same name who in reality are identical). 28 titles have been transmitted (uncertain: Geōrgós, 'The Farmer') and altogether 42 fragments. Only one win is recorded on the Lenaean list of winners [1 test. 3], two places ahead of Menander [4]. T.' active period lasted from the 340s (allusion to the Halon…

Harmodius

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁρμόδιος; Harmódios). [German version] [1] Harmodius of Athens Tyrantmurderer, 514 BC conspired with  Aristogiton [1] and others in order to murder the tyrants  Hippias [1] and  Hipparchus [1] during the Panathenaea in 514 BC. However, they only managed to kill Hipparchus. H. was also killed during this assassination attempt (Hdt. 5,55-58; Thuc. 1,20; 6,54-59; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 18). For Thucydides, the motivation for the conspiracy was purely personal: H. and his sister had suffered humiliation after H. …

Lysistratus

(146 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λυσίστρατος; Lysístratos). [German version] [1] Tragedian from Chalcis, 1st cent. BC from Chalcis. Tragedian, after 85 BC he was victorious at the Amphiaraia ( Amphiaraus) and Romaia in Oropus. His works are not extant. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, brother and collaborator of Lysippus [2]. By making plaster casts of living people, L. is said to have improved the similarity of portraits to their subjects, to have based his work on clay models and to have made…

Publius

(129 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Common Roman praenomen , abbreviated by the siglum P.; earliest evidence Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; c. 500 BC; Lapis Satricanus), thereafter Greek Πόπλιος ( Póplios). The name is etymologically linked to populus (‘army’ > ‘people’). A derivation from Etruscan must be rejected since the rare Etruscan word Puplie was inherited from an Italic language. The shift of poplico- to pūblico- (following pūbēs) was also adopted for the praenomen and its derivative Pūblīlius, the nomen gentile. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian of Rome who wrote in Gr…

Sophocles

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Σοφοκλῆς/ Sophoklês). [German version] [1] Attic tragedian, 5th cent. BC The 5th cent. BC Attic tragedian Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Life Attischer Tragiker des 5. Jh. v. Chr. The most important records are the vita which has survived in several manuscripts and the Suda (σ 815); the complete testimonies have been collected in TrGF, vol. 4. S. was born in 497/6 BC as the son of Sophilus from the Attic deme of Colonus. In 480 he is said to have intoned the paean at the victory celebrations after the b…

Meletus

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος; Mélētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, c. 415 B.C. Athenian. In the year 415 BC he was denounced for having participated in the profanation of the mysteries and the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the). He fled from Attica and was condemned to death in absentia (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Possibly the same as M., the great-grandson of the Alcmaeonid Megacles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825 Traill, PAA 639290. [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Andocides, 400 B.C. Athenian; along with Socrates and others he was ordere…

Polemaeus

(352 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος/ Polemaîos). [German version] [1] Macedonian commander, c. 300 BC (also called Ptolemaeus and Polemon in MSS, but correctly P ., IG II2 469 and IK 28,2). Son of one P., Macedonian, nephew of Antigonus [1]. P. was probably already an officer in the Macedonian army under Alexander [4] the Great, possibly sōmatophýlax (Court titles B) of Philippus Arridaeus [4] (Arr. Succ. 1,38). In 319, he went to Eumenes [1] as a hostage of Antigonus (Plut. Eumenes 10); in 314 he was sent as general to Cappadocia and to secure the Hellespont (Diod. Sic.…

Sthenelus

(387 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σθένελος/ Sthénelos). [German version] [1] Son of Actor Son of Actor, takes part in Heracles' [1] campaign against the Amazons, during which he is killed on the Paphlagonian coast. There S. appears in full armour to the passing Argonauts, who, prompted by Mopsus, sacrifice to him (Apoll. Rhod. 2,911-927 with schol.; Promathidas FGrH 430 F 4-5; Val. Fl. 5,87-100). Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Androgeos Son of Androgeos, grandson of Minos. S. and his brother Alcaeus are taken hostage together by Heracles [1] on Paros because they were respons…
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