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Pelusium

(506 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Syria | Zenobia | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Pilgrimage | Rome | Rome | Egypt (Πηλούσιον/ Pēloúsion; Latin Pelusium). City at the far northeastern corner of the Nile delta (southeast of Port Said), Egyptian Sjn, earlier Snw, 'fortification', from Ptolemiac times also known as P-Pr-jr-Jmn, Coptic ΠΕΡΕΜΟΥΝ, modern Tall al-Faramā. The Greek name P. probably originated from a popular etymological derivation of the Egyptian sjn, 'clay' = Greek pēlós (cf. Str. 17,1,21). Based on the city's name…

Amasis

(240 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Ἀμασις; Ámasis). Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings. [German version] [1] Generally Amosis or Ahmose Generally Amosis or Ahmose, c. 1540/30-1515/05 BC, founder of the 18th dynasty and of the New Kingdom. He completes the expulsion of the  Hyksos, conquers their capital city, Auaris, as well as southern Palestine and Lower Nubia [1. 45-47; 3]. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] Egyptian king Egyptian Jḥ-msw, 5th ruler of the 26th dynasty (570-526 BC), overthrows his predecessor  Apries, when the latter sends him out to quell a mutin…

Anysis

(65 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] According to Hdt. 2,137-40, a blind king of a city of the same name, during whose reign the Ethiopians, under S(h)abako, conquered Egypt. Not historically verifiable; this is probably a reminder of the continuing existence of independent rulers in the Delta during the rule of the Nubian kings (25th dynasty). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, Commentary 99-182, 1988, 90-92.

Rosetta Stone

(137 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Part of a granite tablet discovered in 1799 by French soldiers near the settlement of Rosetta (el-Rashid) on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast (now in the British Museum in London), bearing text in three languages. The inscription is a decree regarding the cult of the ruling monarch in the Egyptian temples, passed by a priestly synod in Memphis on 27 March, 196 BC, on the occasion of the coronation of Ptolemaeus [I 8] V Epiphanes and meant to be displayed in all of the country's te…

Leuke Akte

(78 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Λευκὴ ἀκτή; Leukḕ aktḗ). ‘White cape’ on the Libyan coast of Egypt, near the small Catabathmus, modern Ras al-Abja (on the Ras al-Kanais, c. 60 km east of Marsa Matruh), mentioned in e.g. Str. 10,489; 17,799; Ptol. 4,5,3. According to POxy. XI,1380,45, Isis was venerated at Leuke Akte as Aphrodite, Muchis and Eseremphis. There was also an oracle sanctuary of Apollo ( Horus). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. L.A., RE 12, 2261.

Calasiris

(38 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλάσιρις; Kalásiris).The priest C. is one of the main figures in  Heliodorus' [8] novel Aithiopiká. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. Kalasiris, RE 10, 1547  A.B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, vol. 2, 1976, 342.

Faiyum

(185 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Large oasis c. 80 km south-west of Cairo with a lake in the north. Name from Egyptian p-jm (‘the sea’, older names ts̄, ‘lake land’ and š-rsj, ‘southern lake’, Greek ἡ λίμνη ( hē límnē) or Κροκοδιλοπολίτης νομός ( Krokodilopolítēs nomós), from 256/5 onwards Ἀρσινοίτης νομός/ Arsionoḯtēs nomós). The capital city Šdjt ( Arsinoe [III 2]) is mentioned early but it was not until the 12th Dynasty that F. was developed through dam construction, especially under Amenemhet III ( c. 1853-1808) who was still considered a local hero in Roman times. The chief god wa…

Letopolis

(223 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Λητοῦς πόλις; Lētoûs pólis). City at the south-western tip of the Nile delta, Egyptian ( S) ḫm, modern Ausim (north-west of Kairo), main city of the 2nd Lower Egyptian district. The main god of L. was the falcon-shaped god of heaven ( M) ḫntj-jrtj, who loses and regains his eyes at sunrise and sunset (sun and moon) and thereby symbolizes the daily cycle of the sun. Later he was identified with Haroeris. The sacred animals of the God of L. were mainly the ichneumon and the shrew-mouse (numerous bronze figures are extant,…

Paraetonium

(80 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Limes (Παραιτόνιον; Paraitónion). Port c. 300 km west of Alexandria [1], modern Marsā Maṭrūḥ, the point of departure of the road to the oasis of Siwa (Ammoneion), also called ἡ Ἀμμωνία/ hē Ammōnía (Str. 17,799). P. was important as a port and for border security during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods; during the New Kingdom, there was a fortress close to modern Umm ar-Raḫam. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Xois

(172 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξοίς; Xoís). Egyptian city in the northwestern Nile Delta, Egyptian ( pr-) Ḫsww, chief town of the Sixth District of Lower Egypt. Parts of the ancient settlement are beneath modern Saḫā; no others are extant. There are no archaeological remains from the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC and few textual references; most of the finds are from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. According to a dubious piece of information in Manetho [1] (FGrH 609 F 2,10), the 14th Dynasty ( c. 1650 BC) is supposed to originate from X. During the troubles at the end of the 19th Dynasty ( c. 1200 BC), th…

Bubastis

(119 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt (Egyptian Pr-Bstt, Arabic Tell Basta). Town in the south-eastern delta of the Tanis arm of the Nile. Its primary deity was Bastet, originally a lion goddess, later particularly worshipped as a cat. Her festival is described in Hdt. 2,60. Temple structures are evident from as early as the Old Kingdom, but B. only gained significance with the 22nd dynasty, when it -- alongside Tanis -- became the residence of the Libyan kings. No later than the…

Bokchoris

(92 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] King in Lower Egypt ( c. 720-715 BC), Egyptian Bk-n-rn.f, second and last ruler of the 24th dynasty. He was dethroned by the Nubian king, Shabako, who conquered the whole of Egypt around 715 BC and, according to  Manetho, had B. burned alive. B.'s reign has very little contemporary attestation. All the greater, then, is his fame in later Egyptian and ancient tradition, which regarded him as a sage and a great legislator. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Schneider, Lex. der Pharaonen, 1994, 93f. LÄ 1, 846 RE 3, 66f.

Phiops

(288 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φίοψ/ Phíops or Φιός/ Phiós). Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings (Egyptian Pjpj). [German version] [1] P. I Third king of the 6th Egyptian dynasty Third king of the 6th dynasty ( c. 2300-2250 BC). Under his reign, expeditions to the Sinai [1], to Byblos [1], Nubia and Punt are attested. An inscription of P. was found in Palace G in Ebla. A courtier reported in his funerary inscription that there was a secret investigation of a harem conspiracy led by the queen [1. 98-110]; the same report mentions five military campaigns against Asian nomads. The name of the pyramid (-town) of P. ( Mn-nf…

Kalasiris

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (καλάσιρις; kalásiris). According to Hdt. 2,81, a fringed linen undergarment worn by the Egyptians; according to Democr. (FGrH 267, F.1) also worn by Persians and Ionians, probably to be connected with the Egyptian warrior class of the Kalasirieis. Cf. Calasiris. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Taracus

(244 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάρκος/ Tárkos, Assyrian Tarqû, Egyptian  Th()rq(), in scholarly literature usually Taharka/o). Nubian king, third and most significant ruler (690-664 BC) of the Egyptian 25th Dynasty, throne name Ḫwj-Nfrtm-R. When he was 20 years old, he was summoned by his brother(?) and predecessor Sebichus from Nubia to Egypt, and led the Egyptian army in the (lost) battle of Eltekeh (ANET, 287 f.; 2 Kg 19,9) in 701 BC. In 690 BC, he succeeded Sebichus to the throne, according to his own account as his chosen succe…

Nilopolis

(115 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Νείλου πόλις/ Neílou pólis). [German version] [1] Settlement in Middle Egypt Settlement in Middle Egypt, 13 km north of Banī Suwaif, Coptic Tilodj, modern Dalāṣ. The settlement is not known from ancient Egyptian times; N. was a diocesan town in the Christian period. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] Village in the Fayum Village in the Fayum, near Soknopaiou Nesos, modern Tall ar-Ruṣaṣ, with an Isis cult. Known from numerous papyrus finds from the later Ptolemaic to the Byzantine period. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, s.v. Nilopolis, …

Nectanebus

(474 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of two Egyptian kings of the 30th Dynasty. [German version] [1] N. I Egyptian king, founder of the 30th Dynasty (380-363/2). Νεκτανέβις/-νίβις ( Nektanébis/- níbis), Egyptian Nḫt-nb.f; founder of the 30th Dynasty, son of a general Tachos ( Ḏd-ḥr) from Sebennytus. N. himself was a general under his predecessor Nepherites II, whom he overthrew shortly after his accession. Egypt had hardly any allies at the time, nevertheless it was able to ward off a Persian invasion attempt in 373 BC, in which the Athenian general Iphicrates participated on the Per…

Libyci montes

(76 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Plin. HN 3,3; λιβυκὸν ὄρος; libykòn óros, Hdt. 2,8; λιβυκὰ ὄρη; libykà órē, Ptol. 4,5,10, Str. 17,819). Name of the mountains bordering the Nile valley on the west in contrast to the ‘Arabian’ mountain range of the east bank. According to the ancient geographers, the Nile valley often forms the border between Libya and Arabia and consequently between Africa and Asia. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. L.m., RE 13, 148.

Nitriae

(114 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νιτρίαι/ Nitríai). Settlement on the western edge of the Nile delta around 15km to the south of Damanhūr, modern Gabal Barng. The area around N. produced natron. Since Ptolemaic times it is documented in Greek sources (e.g. Str. 17,803; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Pall. Laus. 7,1 and others). In the 2nd cent. BC it had a Jewish synagogue. Around AD 315, the Coptic abbot Apa Amoun founded a Christian hermitic community in this region, which flourished in the 4th-5th cents. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Bernand, Le delta égyptien d'après les textes grecs…

Lyconpolis

(260 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (λύκων πόλις; lýkōn pólis, ‘wolfs' town’). City on the western bank of the Nile c. 400 km upstream from Cairo, modern Asyūṭ, Egyptian swtj (‘guard’), Assyrian siāutu, capital city of the 13th district of upper Egypt. Because of its position at a narrow stretch of the river, it formed the border of upper Egypt proper and was therefore (and as the point of departure of a caravan road to the western oases) of particular strategic importance. In the 1st Intermediate Period ( c. 2190-1990 BC) it was the main bulwark against the expansion of the Theban rulers northw…
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