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(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…


(2,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Widely occurring Roman nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Octavus ('one born in the eighth month', which disappeared later, still surviving in Octavus Mamilius [2]). Of political importance in Rome from the 2nd cent. BC is only the older line which consecutively produced five consuls (O. [I 4-8]; preferred praenomen: Cn.; regarding the family relationships [1. 405-407]); the members of the related younger line (resident in Velitrae), on the other hand, from which the later princeps Augustus originated, did not rise above equestri…


(5,913 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Ἀντώνιος; Antṓnios). [German version] [1] Thallus Epigrammatic poet, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Epigrammatic poet from Miletus (according to [2] he had received Roman citizenship, through the patronage of Antonia Minor) lived in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 the birth of a Καῖσαρ [ Kaîsar] is celebrated, who is to be equated with either C. Julius Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, or with Germanicus). His five epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, are certainly conventional in their…


(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…


(3,107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian house (originally Ailius), verifiable from the 4th cent. BC until the late imperial era. The most important families are the Paeti (since the 4th cent. BC), Tuberones (since the 2nd cent. BC), and from the 1st cent. also the Galli and Lamiae. In the imperial era, especially since Hadrian, the most famous bearer of the name, the name Aelius is so widespread that it -- just like Flavius and Aurelius -- loses its character as nomen gentile. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Ae. Unknown author of a lex Aelia, mid 2nd cent. BC unknown author of a lex Aelia (mostly mentioned t…


(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …

Sinnius Capito

(137 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Latin grammarian of the 1st cent. BC, a younger contemporary of Varro; his scholarly writings were a source for Verrius Flaccus, Gellius [6] and others. His known works include: a treatise on syllables (the first such work attested in Latin beyond the Liber de litteris syllabisque wrongly attributed to the poet Ennius, Suet. Gram. 1,3); letters (Epistle) with philological content (Gell. NA 5,20,2; 21,9f. notes one addressed to the scholar Clodius [III 4] Tuscus, another addressed to Pacuvius Antistius [I 13] Labeo, father of…


(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Crassicius Pasicles (Pansa), L.

(122 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Originally from Tarentum, he was enslaved but later freed. His working years were the thirties and twenties BC, first as an assistant for mimeographers, then as grammaticus in modest circumstances. His commentary on  Helvius Cinna's Zmyrna brought him popularity and attracted students from respected families (for example Iullus  Antonius [II 1], son of the triumvir). But at the height of his success he closed his school and followed the sect of the Stoic-Pythagorean philosopher Q.  Sextius. It is not known when he changed his name Pasicles to Pansa (Suet. Gram. 18). Kas…

Cloatius Verus

(94 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Roman lexicographer with antiquarian interests, perhaps from the early Augustan period. He wrote about the meaning of Greek words (at least four ordinatorum Graecorum libri) and on Greek loan-words in Lat. (apparently also at least four bks. Verba a Graecis tracta). C. is quoted as a source by  Gellius (16,12) and  Macrobius (Sat. 3,6,2; 3,20,1). He is quite certainly the same Cloatius, whom  Pompeius Festus ( Verrius Flaccus) cites as a specialist in sacred language, together with L.  Aelius, probably C.'s source. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 46…


(685 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] I. Greek see  Hypomnema Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) [German version] II. Latin   Commentarii ( commentarii, also commentarium) were originally a non-literary assemblage of records concerning the affairs of a household, magistrate or priestly order. Among scholars, commentarii could denote the following: 1. corresponding to the Greek term   hypómnēma , a kind of ‘notebook’ (e.g. Cic. De or. 1,5; Brut. 164; cf. Gellius 16,8,3, who characterizes L.  Aelius' [II 20] Commentarius de proloquiis as follows: ‘Aelius appears to have written this book as advi…


(100 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] A Roman tragic poet and scholar whose floruit should probably be dated to the mid-first century BC. As the author of biographies of literary figures, he was a predecessor of Suetonius [2] (vgl. Jer. Vir. ill., praef.), who cites him as an authority on Terentius (vita Ter. 31,10 ff. Reifferscheid) and Lucilius [I 6] (Suet. gramm. 14,4). Quint. inst. 12,10,16 attributes to him a shrewd observation on the origin of Asianism. S. also composed a work  De antiquitate verborum, in at least three books. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 384-389  R. Mazzacane, S.,…


(439 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kugelmeier, Christoph (Berlin) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
Plebeian family name (on coins also Cornuficius, RRC 509); in origin probably the name of a trade (Schulze, 417), historically attested from the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] C., L. People's tribune 43 BC, follower of Octavian Son of C. [2], follower of Octavian ( Augustus) in 43 BC, as people's tribune, he accused M. Iunius Brutus of the murder of Caesar (Plut. Brut. 272), in 38 and 36 fought as legate (?) against S.  Pompeius in the Adriatic and in Sicily (App. B Civ. 5,339f.; 360ff; 462ff.; Vell. Pat. 2,79,4). In 35 he was c…

Orbilius Pupillus, L.

(162 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Latin grammarian. In 63 BC, at the age of 50, O. moved from Beneventum to Rome, having served as apparitor (subaltern attendant to a magistrate) at home and on a Macedonian campaign. He lived to be almost 100. A cantankerous character and harsh critic of the scholarly world of Rome, in which he had no success, his place in the memory of his pupil Horace (Horatius [7]) was by virtue of the beatings he administered (Hor. Epist. 2,1,69-71), but at Beneventum he was honoured with a statue (Suet. Gram. 9…


(2,055 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Weitverbreiter röm. Gentilname, abgeleitet vom später verschwundenen Numeralpraenomen Octavus (“der im achten Monat Geborene”, erh. bei Octavus Mamilius [2]). Polit. bedeutsam ist in Rom seit dem 2. Jh.v.Chr. einzig die ältere Linie, aus der in Reihe fünf Consuln hervorgingen (O. [I 4-8]; bevorzugtes Praenomen: Cn.; zu den Verwandtschaftverhältnissen [1. 405-407]); dagegen gelangten die Angehörigen der mit ihr verwandten jüngeren Linie (in Velitrae ansässig), aus der der spätere Princeps Augustus stammt…

Orbilius Pupillus, L.

(138 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[English version] Lat. Grammatiker. O. zog 63 v.Chr. im Alter von 50 J. von Benevent nach Rom, nachdem er als apparitor (subalterner Bediensteter eines Magistrats) zu Hause sowie in einem Makedonienfeldzug gedient hatte. Er wurde fast 100 J. alt. Als mürrischer Charakter und harscher Kritiker des Gelehrtenmilieus in Rom, wo er keinen Erfolg hatte, blieb er seinem Schüler Horatius [7] wegen seiner Schläge im Gedächtnis (Hor. epist. 2,1,69-71), wurde aber in Beneventum mit einer Statue geehrt (Suet. gramm. 9). Gelehr…


(4,132 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Plebeischer Gentilname, nachweisbar vom 5. Jh. v. Chr. bis zum Ende der Ant. ([II 13] und [II 14] sind wohl gegen die Quellen keine Patrizier). Prominenz erlangte die Familie im 2. Jh. v. Chr. mit dem Redner M. Antonius [I 7] und seinen Nachkommen. Pseudogenealogie sah in Ἄντων, einem Heraklessohn, den Ahnherren (Plut. Ant. 4,2; 36,7; 60,5). I. Republik [English version] [I 1] A., A. Gesandter 168 v. Chr. Gesandter an Perseus nach der Schlacht von Pydna 168 v. Chr. wegen seiner Auslieferung (Liv. 45,4,7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] A., C. Hybrida, cos. 6…

Cloatius Verus

(86 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[English version] Römischer Lexikograph mit antiquarischen Interessen, vielleicht aus frühaugusteischer Zeit. Er schrieb über die Bed. griech. Wörter (mindestens vier Ordinatorum Graecorum libri) und über griech. Lehnwörter im Lat. (offenbar auch mindestens vier Bücher Verba a Graecis tracta). C. wird von Gellius (16,12) und Macrobius (sat. 3,6,2; 3,20,1) als Quelle zitiert. Er ist mit großer Sicherheit derjenige Cloatius, den Pompeius Festus (Verrius Flaccus) als einen Fachmann für Sakralsprache zusammen mit L.Aelius, wahrscheinlich C.' Quelle, zitiert. Kaster, Robert…


(17,472 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name einer alten patrizischen Familie, wohl verbunden mit dem Götternamen Iuppiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. Die gens gehörte zu den sog. “trojanischen Familien”, die angeblich unter König Tullus Hostilius [I 4] aus Alba Longa nach Rom übergesiedelt waren (s.u.). Im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. waren die Iulli bedeutend. Unklar bleibt die Verbindung zum Zweig der Caesares, die ab dem 3. Jh. hervortraten und deren herausragender Angehöriger der Dictator Caesar war [Stammbaum: 3. 183f.]. Sein Adoptivsohn, der spätere Kaiser Aug…


(651 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[English version] I. Griechisch s. Hypomnema Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) [English version] II. Lateinisch Commentarii ( c., auch commentarium) waren urspr. eine nicht lit. Zusammenstellung von Aufzeichnungen, die die Angelegenheiten eines Haushalts, eines Magistrats oder einer Priesterschaft betrafen. Unter Gelehrten konnte c. folgendes bezeichnen: 1. entsprechend dem griech. Begriff hypómnēma eine Art “Notizbuch” (z.B. Cic. de orat. 1,5; Brut. 164; vgl. Gellius 16,8,3, der L. Aelius' [II 20] Commentarius de proloquiis folgendermaßen charakterisiert: ‘Aelius sc…
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