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(3,034 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] (ἀγορά; agorá) in a topographical sense is the district of the Greek polis ( Town / City) delineated as the political, religious, social and economic focus. Originally, agora was the assembly, derived from ἀγείρω ( ageírō; to assemble), of freemen in a community. The history of this people's assembly and its place of assembly is, to a high degree, concurrent with the development of the  polis itself. The community of citizens, characteristic of the polis, developed on the agora, and its architectural layout reflec…


(370 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Greek and Roman armies used tactical signals, Latin  signa (cf. Greek σημεῖα/ sēmeîa) for the transmission of orders in camp and on the battlefield. Vegetius lists three kinds of signal (Veg. Mil. 3,5,3; cf. Arr. Tact. 27): (a) signa vocalia, voice-signals: soldiers' passwords ( tessera) for guard duties and for battle; (b) signa semivocalia, acoustic signals with the aid of signaling instruments ( tuba, cornu, bucina: Musical instruments VI.): musical commands to engage the enemy, to halt, to pursue or retreat (Veg. Mil. 2,22…

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…


(217 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] In Greek ἀγγαρεία ( angareía), a word of Persian origin, which described a service obligation from the 3rd cent. BC, especially in association with the transport of persons and goods by order of the state [1.11]; both Herodotus (3,126,2; 8,98,2) and Xenophon (Cyr. 8,6,17) mention the courier services (ἀγγαρήιον; angarḗnion) of the Persians. The sources from the Principate [5.6 A. 25] describe making means of transportation available, in part for compensation fixed by the state (SB 1,39241; cf. angariare = to requisition: Dig. 49,18,4,1), with ἀγγαρεία or angaria (on…