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Skylax

(279 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin | Michel, Simone
(Σκύλαξ). [English version] [1] aus Karyanda, Forschungsreisender 519/18 v. Chr. S. aus Karyanda. Erkunder von Schiffswegen und Geogr., fuhr 519/512 v. Chr. [5. 78] im Dienst des Dareios [1] von Kaspapyros den Indos [1] abwärts zur indischen Küste, dann - erstmals die arab. Halbinsel umrundend - in 30 Monaten durch die Erythra Thalatta [1] zum h. Suez (Hdt. 4,44) [1. Bd. 1, 33, 52 f.; 1. Bd. 2, 14 f.; 2. 622 f.]. S. schrieb über Herakleides von Mylasa (Suda s. v. Σ.), starb also nach 480 v. Chr. [2. 634 f…

Steinschneidekunst

(2,394 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg | Michel, Simone
[English version] I. Alter Orient s. Siegel Niemeyer, Hans Georg [English version] II. Phönizisch Die phöniz. und pun. S. (= Glyptik) ist nahezu allein durch Stempelsiegel in Form von Skarabäen (Skarabäus) bzw. Skarabäoiden bekannt, die in der ant. Welt weiteste Verbreitung gefunden haben; der Körper des Käfers ist im phöniz. Osten graphisch-linear, im pun. Westen - unte…

Onatas

(391 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Ὀνάτας; Onátas). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Aegina, 5th cent. BC Bronze sculptor from Aegina, son of Micon. O. was a contemporary of Hegias [1] and Ageladas and one of the most important masters of the Severe Style. None of his numerous works is extant or secured in the form of copies. His signature is found on a pedestal of a bronze horse on the Athenian Acropolis and a pedestal in Olympia, both from the early 5th cent. BC. In Olympia, O. sculpted a votive offering ( anáthēma ) for the Achaeans in around 470-460 BC with Nestor and nine Trojan h…

Onatas

(338 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Ὀνάτας). [English version] …

Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος)

(802 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[1] aus Kalchedon, griech. Arzt und Fachautor, ca. 330/20 - 260/50 v. Chr. [English version] A. Leben Griech. Arzt aus Kalchedon, etwa 330/320 bis 260/50 v.Chr. [5. 43-50]. Abgesehen von einer hippokratisch ausgerichteten Ausbildung bei Praxagoras verbrachte er den größten Teil seiner aktiven Laufbahn unter Ptolemaios I. und II. in Alexandreia. Er scheint jedoch nicht im Museion gearbeitet zu haben und war auch nicht Hofarzt [5. 26f.]. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [English version] B. Werk Von den elf Werken, die H. zugewiesen wurden, sind sechs mit großer Wahrscheinl…

Agathangelus

(217 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Gem cutter, 1st cent. BC Gem cutter (1st cent. BC), signed the famous ‘Agathangelus cameo’ with the portrait of a man (carnelian, Berlin, SM) -- it has been debated since the 18th cent. as to whether this is Sextus Pompeius. …

Herophilus

(831 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Ἡρόφιλος; Hēróphilos) [1] From Chalcedon, Greek physician and medical author, approx. 330/20-260/50 BC [German version] A. Life Greek physician from Chalcedon, about 330/320 to 260/250 BC [5. 43-50]. Apart from his training with Praxagoras, with a Hippocratic orientation, he spent the majority of his active career under Ptolemy I and II in Alexandria. However, he does not appear to have worked in the  Mouseion, nor was he a court physician [5. 26f.]. …

Scylax

(311 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σκύλαξ; Skýlax). [German version] [1] From Caryanda, explorer 519/18 BC S. from Caryanda. Discoverer of shipping routes and geographer, in 519/512 BC [5. 78] in the service of Darius [1], he sailed  down the Indus [1] from Caspapyrus to the Indian coast, then - rounding the Arabian peninsula for the first time - through the Erythra Thalatta [1] to modern Suez (Hdt. 4,44) in 30 months [1. vol. 1, 33, 52 f.; 1. vol. 2, 14 f.; 2. 622 f.]. S. wrote about Heraclides of Mylasa (Suda s.v. Σ.), and therefore died after 480 BC ([2. 634 f.]). Seven fragments on India (FGrH 709) are ascribed to his Pe…

Dexamenus

(359 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Δεξαμενός; Dexamenós). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Olenus in Achaea Mythical king of  Olenus in Achaea, host of  Hercules; his name indicates that hospitality is his main function in the narrative. Hercules repaid his hospitality by saving D.'s daughter who was being pursued by the centaur Eurytion. There are various versions of the story: either D. was forced to betroth his daughter Mnesimache to Eurytion who was, however, killed by Hercules (Apollod. 2,91); or Eurytion tried to rape D.'s daugh…

Agathangelos

(195 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Steinschneider, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Steinschneider (1. Jh. v. Chr.), signierte die berühmte ›Agathangelos-Gemme‹ mit dem Portrait eines Mannes (Karneol, Berlin, SM) - seit dem 18. Jh. als Sextus Pompeius diskutiert. Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 12, 281-283, Taf. 79,1. [English version] [2] Sekretär des Arsakiden-Königs Tiridates IV., Autor zur Christianisierung Armeniens, 3. Jh. Sekretär des Arsakiden-Königs Tiridates IV. (239-281 n. Chr.). In der A. zugeschriebenen “Geschichte” wird er als “zuverlässiger Zeuge” bezeichnet. Sie behandelt di…

Sphragis

(434 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone | Gärtner, Hans Armin | Fitschen, Klaus
(σφραγίς, wörtl. “Siegel”). [English version] [1] Siegel(stein) Siegel(stein): Edel- oder Schmuckstein mit Intaglio-Schnitt, Siegelring, Siegel(abdruck). Auf den aus dem röm. Äg. stammenden magischen Amulett-Gemmen des 2.-4. Jh. n. Chr. wird inschr. häufig das dämonenbannende Siegel des Salomo sowie in Verbindung mit Salomo-Motiven das Siegel Gottes erwähnt ( sphragís theú). Steinschneidekunst Michel, Simone Bibliography S. Michel, Die magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, 2001, 268 ff., Taf. 64-66; 430-450. [English version] [2] s. Siegel; Subscriptio s. Sieg…

Aspasios

(550 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] [1] Aristoteleskommentator, 2. Jh. Aristoteleskommentator, 1. Hälfte des 2. Jh. n.Chr., Lehrer des Herminos. Seine Werke wurden in Plotins Schule gelesen (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' Komm. über die ‘Nikomachische Ethik [1] ist der früheste durchgehende Komm. zu einer aristotelische Abhandlung, der erh. ist, und beeinflußte die Behandlung der “gemeinen Bücher” 5-7 als nikomacheisch, obwohl die These von [2. 29-36], daß er verantwortlich war für den Transfer dieser Bücher, von der ‘Eu…

Hyllus

(747 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ὕλλος; Hýllos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Deianira Son of  Heracles and  Deianira; brother of Macaria. Ctesippus, Glenos and Oneites (Hes. fr. 25,19 M-W; Apollod. 2,165 Wagner) or Gleneus and Odites (Diod. Sic. 4,37,1) have been named as his brothers and Euaichme (Hes. fr. 251b M-W) as his daughter. Heracles asks him to burn his body on a pyre on Mount Oeta and to marry Iole (Soph. Trach. 1179-1258; (Ps.-)Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 1481-1491). After his father's death, he and the other Heraclid…

Aspasius

(588 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Commentator on Aristotle Commentator on Aristotle, 1st half of the 2nd cent. AD; teacher of  Herminus. His works were read in the school of Plotinus (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' commentary on the ‘Nicomachean Ethics [1] is the earliest surviving extended commentary on an Aristotelian text, and influenced the treatment of the ‘common books’ 5-7 as Nicomachean; although the theory in [2. 29-36] that he was responsible for the inclusion of these books has been questioned by the ‘Eud…

Sphragis

(481 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
(σφραγίς/ sphragís, literally  Seal). [German version] [1] Seal (stone) Seal (stone): precious or decorative stone with intaglio engraving, signet ring, seal (impression). On 2nd-4th cent. AD magical amulet gems from Roman Egypt there is often mention of the demon-averting seal of Solomon and, connected with Solomon motifs, the Seal of God ( sphragìs theoû). Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Michel, Die magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, 2001, 268 ff., pls. 64-66; 430-450. [German version] [2] see Seals ; Subscriptio See Seals; Subscriptio. Gärtner, Ha…

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Eutyches

(362 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Εὐτύχης; Eutýchēs). [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD, signed as ‘son of  Dioscorides of Aegeae’ the rock crystal with a bust of Athena (Berlin, SM), in the style of the Athena of Velletri. Athena of  Velitrae;  Intaglio;  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 31770, 331 pl. 92,3 AGD II, Berlin 169 pl. 80 and 81 no. 456. [German version] [2] Lat. grammarian of the 4th cent. AD (Eutyc(h)ius, MSS), Latin grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, a pupil of  Priscianus and author of an Ars de verbo, probably identical with…

Solon

(2,717 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa | Bowie, Ewen; Ü:RE.M. | Michel, Simone
(Σόλων). [1] S. von Athen Dichter, Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. [English version] I. Leben griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (geb. ca. 640 v. Chr.), Athener aus der Familie der Medontidai, über die Mutter angeblich mit Peisistratos [4] verwandt, neben dem legendären Spartaner Lykurgos [4] der bedeutendste griech. Gesetzgeber in archa. Zeit und der erste prominente Dichter Athens. S. trat erstmals um 600 v. Chr. hervor, als er im Konflikt mit Megara [2] erfolgreich zur Eroberung von Salamis [1] aufrief (Sol. fr. …
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