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Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Onesas

(157 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Ὀνέσας; Onésas). Hellenistic gem-cutter who signed a sard intaglio with an altered image of Athena Lemnia (London, BM; [1. 203, n. 56, pl. 53,5]). The latter also appears repeatedly like a replica on a more coarsely worked glass paste (Berlin, SM; [1. 206, n. 78, pl. 47,1; 2. 95, pl. 46, 219]). His signature can also be found on a yellow glass paste depicting a Muse playing the lyre (Florence, MA), which is regarded as a prime example of Hellenistic glyptics [1. 206, ns. 79-80, pl…

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Pergamus

(166 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Classical Period gem cutter, whose signature ΠΕΡΓΑ (PERGA) is restored to Pergamos in accordance with master's signatures of the Classical Period which occur mostly in the nominative. A fire-damaged carnelian scarab, signed by him in this way, with the head of a youth in a Phrygian cap (Saint Petersburg, ER) has been found, together with coins of Lysimachus [2], in a grave at Kerch in the Crimea [1. 134, 198f., table  8,5; 3. 13126, 138f.56, fig. 41c, table 32,9], but on the basis of the lettering of the signature on the flap of the cap and the style …

Sostratus

(572 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Σώστρατος/ Sṓstratos). [German version] [1] Of Cnidus, Greek architect, 1st half of 3rd cent. BC Son of Dexiphanes of Cnidus; architect of the early Hellenistic period (1st half of 3rd cent. BC), mentioned several times in ancient literature (Plin. HN 36,83; Lucian, Amores 11; Lucian, Hippias 2). He was also diplomatically active, as one of the philoi of Ptolemaeus [3] II (Str. 17,1,6). As well as with various canal constructions linked to the conquest of the Egyptian city of Memphis and buildings at Cnidus and Delphi (FdD III/1 nos. 198 and 299), h…

Sphragis

(481 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
(σφραγίς/ sphragís, literally  Seal). [German version] [1] Seal (stone) Seal (stone): precious or decorative stone with intaglio engraving, signet ring, seal (impression). On 2nd-4th cent. AD magical amulet gems from Roman Egypt there is often mention of the demon-averting seal of Solomon and, connected with Solomon motifs, the Seal of God ( sphragìs theoû). Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Michel, Die magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, 2001, 268 ff., pls. 64-66; 430-450. [German version] [2] see Seals ; Subscriptio See Seals; Subscriptio. Gärtner, Ha…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Syries

(77 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Συρίης/ Syríēs). Like Onesimus a gem-cutter of 'island stones' (second half of the 6th cent. BC), both probably working in Euboea. The inscription ΣΥΡΙΕΣ on a green steatite pseudo-scarab, with the reverse moulded as a Silen mask and an image of a citharode climbing on to a bêma (Rostrum) (London, BM), is considered to be the earliest master signature of a gem-cutter. Gem cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 83 f., note 48 f., plate 19.

Herophilus

(831 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Ἡρόφιλος; Hēróphilos) [1] From Chalcedon, Greek physician and medical author, approx. 330/20-260/50 BC [German version] A. Life Greek physician from Chalcedon, about 330/320 to 260/250 BC [5. 43-50]. Apart from his training with Praxagoras, with a Hippocratic orientation, he spent the majority of his active career under Ptolemy I and II in Alexandria. However, he does not appear to have worked in the  Mouseion, nor was he a court physician [5. 26f.]. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [German version] B. Work Of the eleven works attributed to H. six are almost certainly genuine: …

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Gem cutting

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
Michel, Simone (Hamburg) A. Research History (CT) [German version] 1. From the Middle Ages to the Late Renaissance (CT) During the early Middle Ages interest in cut gems had declined rapidly. Colourful gemstones were indeed used to decorate objects, but generally without figurative motifs. In the Carolingian and the Hohenstaufen periods (9th cent.; 12th/13th cents.), the cutting of cameos was once again taken up [2; 11. 2. fn. 3, 375. fn. 2 und 6, 380. fn. 30]. In the Middle Ages, gems and cameos from Antiquity w…

Scylax

(311 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σκύλαξ; Skýlax). [German version] [1] From Caryanda, explorer 519/18 BC S. from Caryanda. Discoverer of shipping routes and geographer, in 519/512 BC [5. 78] in the service of Darius [1], he sailed  down the Indus [1] from Caspapyrus to the Indian coast, then - rounding the Arabian peninsula for the first time - through the Erythra Thalatta [1] to modern Suez (Hdt. 4,44) in 30 months [1. vol. 1, 33, 52 f.; 1. vol. 2, 14 f.; 2. 622 f.]. S. wrote about Heraclides of Mylasa (Suda s.v. Σ.), and therefore died after 480 BC ([2. 634 f.]). Seven fragments on India (FGrH 709) are ascribed to his Pe…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Thamyras

(97 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Θαμύρας; Thamýras). Name on five gems. Only the 18th century paste on a reliquary in the Vienna treasury is verifiably a copy of a missing gem with a Nereid from the period of Augustus. T. is deemed to be the signature of a gem-cutter from the circle of Dioscorides [8]. The other four 'signatures' are modern additions to ancient stones or elements of forgeries, probably following the Viennese model. Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Zwierlein-Diehl, T.-Gemmen, in: H.-U. Cain et al. (eds.), Beiträge zur Ikonographie und Hermeneutik, Fests…

Alexas

(55 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Father of  Aulus [2] and Quintus, probably a Campanian stone carvers' family during the Roman Republican period with their preferred subjects being of Aphrodisian-Dionysian character. A.'s signature is on only one cameo fragment with a marine animal (London, BM).  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 286 annotation 113.

Aulos

(109 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] see Musical instruments Aulos, see  Musical instruments Michel, Simone (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Stonemason of the 1st cent. BC Stonemason of the 1st cent. BC, son of  Alexas, brother of Quintus. Signed works: Eros bound to tropaion (amethyst, London, BM), nailing down butterfly (hyacinth, The Hague, MK), bound (cameo, lost), with Aphrodite (carnelian, London, BM); satyr head (intaglio, lost); Maenad busts (hyacinth, erstwhile Collection Ludovisi); athlete (carnelian, Paris, CM); Poseidon and Amymone (white …

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Eutyches

(362 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Εὐτύχης; Eutýchēs). [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD, signed as ‘son of  Dioscorides of Aegeae’ the rock crystal with a bust of Athena (Berlin, SM), in the style of the Athena of Velletri. Athena of  Velitrae;  Intaglio;  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 31770, 331 pl. 92,3 AGD II, Berlin 169 pl. 80 and 81 no. 456. [German version] [2] Lat. grammarian of the 4th cent. AD (Eutyc(h)ius, MSS), Latin grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, a pupil of  Priscianus and author of an Ars de verbo, probably identical with…

Scopas

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Σκόπας/ Skópas). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, mid 4th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros, active in the mid 4th cent. BC, working mostly in marble and very occasionally in bronze. In the opinion of the ancient world, S. was one of the most important masters of Greek sculpture. Written records ascribe to him approximately 25-30 individual works and major projects, which should probably be allotted to several sculptors with the same name of different generations. The extant pediment sculptures from th…
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