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Themisonium

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεμισώνιον/ Themisṓnion). City in southwestern Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; Paus. 10,32,4; Ptol. 5,2,26; Hierocles, Synekdemos 666,3), presumably to the north of Acıpayam at modern Dodurga in the valley of the Kazanes (coins: BMC Phrygia 418 f.); this river can probably be identified as the Casus (modern river Karayük), which Manlius [I 24] crossed on his march from Tabae to Cibyra in 189 BC (cf. Liv. 38,14,1). T. was named after Themison, a fri…

Mare Suebicum

(492 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Baltic Sea). Shallow marginal sea of the Atlantic or the North Sea ( mare Germanicum ); since about 8000 BC the connection with the North Sea has been broken in various ways. Subdivisions are the shallow Kattegat and the shallow Bælt Sea, the actual Baltic Sea with various basins and depths up to 50 m (west of Bornholm), 100 m (east of Bornholm), 249 m (east of Gotland), 459 m (east of Landort, maximum depth of the Mare Suebicum (MS)) and larger islands (Fyn and Sjæland in th…

Themiscyra

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θεμίσκυρα/ Themískyra). Highly fertile coastal region (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 7a; Apollod. 2,101; Plin. HN 6,9; Just. Epit. 2,4,1) or Greek city (at modern Terme, Peripl. m. Eux. 29; Ps.-Scyl. 89; possibly destroyed in the third of the Mithridatic Wars since for later times there is no information) in the north of the Paryadres mountains on the southern shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) on the lower River Thermodon [2], where in Greek myth the Amazons lived (cf. Aesch. PV 724 f.; Hdt. 4,110). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Naresii

(72 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ναρήσιοι; Narḗsioi). Illyrian tribe (Ptol. 2,16,8) on the upper and lower Neretva/Hercegovina. The N. were among those conquered by the future Augustus in connection with his Dalmatian campaign (Dalmatae) of 35/33 BC (App. Ill. 47). Incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum, they participated in the conventus of Narona (Plin. HN 3,143) with 102 decuriae. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography I. Bojanovski, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba, 1988, 379.

Phrixa

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φρίξα/ Phríxa). Settlement in western Arcadia or south-eastern Elis or Triphylia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), east of Pisatis on the left bank of the Alpheius [1], where the Leucyanias flows into it from the north (Hdt. 4,148,4: Φρίξαι/ Phríxai; Paus. 6,21,5f.; Str. 8,3,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μάκιστος). It stood on a prominent hill (305 m; modern Paliophanaro) at what today is once more known as Phrixa, 9 km east of Olympia. P. later adopted the name Phaestus, probably also Phaesana (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαιστός). Even by the tim…

Peltae

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Πέλται; Péltai). Settlement, already in existence by the end of the 5th cent. BC (cf. Xen. An. 1,2,10) and subsequently a Seleucid military colony (coin: HN 682: ΠΕΛΤΗΝΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ; PELTĒNŌN MAKEDONŌN) in Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,13: τὸ Πελτηνὸν πεδίον; tò Peltēnòn pedíon; Ptol. 5,2,25; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; Hsch. s.v. Βέλτη/ Béltē, possibly misspelled for Π./ P., cf. [1. 120 § 145]; Pelteni, Plin. HN 95; 106) on the upper reaches of the Meander [2] (cf. the coin HN 682: ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ; MAIANDROS), presumed south of…

Azanes, Azania

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀζάνες, Ἀζανία; Azánes, Azanía). Tribe and region (of proverbial inhospitableness, cf. Zenob. 2,54; Diogenianus 1,24) between the rivers of Erymanthus and Ladon, at the border of Arcadia with  Elis (Str. 8,3,1; 8,1).  Paeon was a town of the A. (Hdt. 6,127). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 1, 1959, 211.

Chalybes

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάλυβες; Χάλυβοι; Chálybes, Chályboi, Hecat. FGrH 1 F 203). A people famous for their skill in ironwork; they were even credited with the invention of iron; indeed the extraction and working of gold and silver were associated with the C. Sometimes located on the north shore of the Black Sea (original homeland? Aesch. PV 714f.), but generally in the northern Anatolian mountains west of the  Halys (Hdt. 1,28), extending in the east as far as  Pharnacaea and  Trapezus (Str. 12,3,19ff.), in the south to the territory of the Armenians. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Gerunium

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.

Tauris

(56 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Island between Pharus [2] and Corcyra [2] Melaina off the Dalmatian coast (Tab. Peut. 6,4), modern Šćedro (in Croatia). Caesar's legate P. Vatinius [I 2] was victorious at T. over the fleet of Pompey's party in 47 BC (Bell. Alex. 45,1,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Kozlic̆ić, Historical Geography of the Eastern Adriatic, 1990, 300.

Dokimeion

(69 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Marble (Δοκίμειον; Dokímeion). Town in Phrygia maior (Steph. Byz. s.v. Δ.; Str. 12,8,14: Δοκιμία κώμη; Ptol. 5,2,24: Δοκίμαιον; Hierocles [8], Synecdemus 677: Δοκίμιον;  Asia Minor III E.) on the road from Apamea [2] to Amorion (modern Hisar Köyü) near modern İscehisar. On the broken marble at D. cf.  Syn(n)ada.  Marble (with map) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Belke/Mersich, 237f.

Achaia

(723 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] In its meeting of 13 January 27 BC, the Senate resolved to set up A. as a senatorial province (Cass. Dio 53,12; Str. 17,3,25), comprising central Greece and the  Peloponnese together with  Epirus, Acarnania ( Acarnanians) including the Ionian islands, also  Aetolia,  Thessaly,  Sporades,  Cyclades excluding Astypalaea and Amorgus, but with  Euboea. A. was to be governed by a   proconsul pro praetore (residing in the Roman colony of Laus Iulia Corinthus), alongside a   legatus Augusti pro praetore and a   quaestor ; several procuratores looked after the imperial i…

Notou keras

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νότου κέρας; Nótou kéras). Modern Ras Guardafui or Ras el-Kheil in East Africa [2]. Artemidorus [3] (1st half of the 1st cent. BC) followed geographical knowledge of the time when he called the eastern point of Africa ‘the horn of the south’, that is the southern end of the known world. Ptolemaeus (Ptol. 4,7,11) acted accordingly in the 2nd cent. AD, obviously referring to modern Ras el-Kheil by NK after terms like Ἀρωμάτων ἀκρωτήριον ( Arōmátōn akrōtḗrion) or the like had come into use for the former NK [2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 J. Desanges, Reche…

Drilae

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δρῖλαι; Drîlai). Tribe in the north Anatolian mountains south of  Trapezus; the Greeks with Xenophon were unable to capture their mountain refuge in 400 BC (Xen. An. 5,2,1-27; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. D.), identified with the Sanni by Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 15. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sea

(630 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] The world inhabited by Graeco-Roman Antiquity was essentially determined by its geographical centre, the Mare Nostrum and the large adjacent seas, the Ionios Kolpos, the Aigaion Pelagos, and the Pontos Euxeinos; the peripheral seas - Mare Germanicum, Mare Suebicum, Caspian Sea, Erythra Thalatta and the adjacent seas Arabios Kolpos (the modern Red Sea), the Persian Gulf, and the Oceanus - formed fundamentally different worlds (particularly the Persian Gulf at the time of the Near E…

Xoana

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξόανα; Xóana). City in the Indian subcontinent on the left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,61), to the northeast of Patala, probably at modern Hyderabad in Pakistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X. (1), RE 9 A, 2138-2140.

Stoechades

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στοιχάδες νῆσοι/ Stoichádes nêsoi), 'row islands' (from στοῖχος/ stoîchos, row). Island group directly offshore, c. 70 km east of Massalia/Marseille (Str. 4,1,10; Mela 2,124), present-day Îles d'Hyères. Among them are the islands of Prote ('the first'), Mese ('the middle one'), as well as Pomponiana, Hypaea ('the one below'), Sturium, Phoenice, Phila, Lero and Lerina (Plin. HN 3,79). The assignment of the corresponding modern names to the various islands is a matter of debate (present-day Le L…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Pisye

(145 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισύη/ Pisýē). Carian city, capital of a local koinón (together with Pladasa, [3. 443 no. 19]; other koiná were led by Mobolla and Idyma); occupied for a short time in 201 by Philippus [7] V, then regained by Rhodes (Syll.3 586; [2. no. 151]), belonging to the region of Rhodian Peraia subjugated on the basis of the Apameia agreement in 188 BC (Antiochus [5] III.) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., according to him also Πιτύη/ Pitýē, ethnicon Πισυήτης/ Pisyḗtēs; Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos, De Thematibus 14,33). Archaeology: traces of the acropolis, a theatre, site…

Zarkaion oros

(41 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαρκαῖον ὄρος; Zarkaîon óros). Craggy mountains between Chauon (modern Ḫōy in Iran) and Ecbatana (Diod. 2,13,5), and therefore a chain in the northern Zagrus mountains in Media. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z.o., RE 9 A, 2328.
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