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Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Vologesocerta

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Plin. HN 6,122; Ptol. 5,20,6: Οὐλογαισία/ Ou ologaisía; Amm. Marc. 23,6,23: Vologessia; Tab. Peut. 11,4: Volocesia; Steph. Byz. s. v. Βολογεσσίας/ Bologessías). City in Babylonia, founded by the Parthian king Vologaeses I on the Naarmalcha near Seleucia [1] and in competition with it; presumably at modern Abū Ḫalafīya. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Oppenheimer, Babylonia Judaica in the Talmudic Period (TAVO Beiheft B 47), 1983, 198-207.

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 72-74  Müller, 822.

Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…

Ionia

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰωνία; Iōnía, Ἰωνίη; Iōníē). West Anatolian countryside between Aeolis in the north, Lydia in the east, the Aegean in the west and Caria in the south; it includes the settlement area in Asia Minor of the  Iones, who moved in there in connection with the post-Mycenaean migration and since about 700 BC were amalgamated in the Panionian Amphiktyonia (cf. the descriptions of I. in Str. 14,1; Plin. HN 5,112-120) with the cities of (cf. Hdt. 1,142-148; Aesch. Pers. 771) Miletus, Myus, Pri…

Selinus

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Σελινοῦς/ Selinoûs). Name of several rivers and towns. [German version] [1] Tributary of the Alpheius [1] Southern tributary of the Alpheius [1] which enters west of Olympia, modern Krestena (Xen. An. 5,3,8; Paus. 5,6,6). Lienau, Cay (Münster) [German version] [2] River in Achaea River in Achaea, which originates on Mount Erymanthus near Leontium close to modern Vlasia, flows through the territory of Aegium and enters the Corinthian Gulf east of modern Valimitika. Today again known as S. (Str. 8,7,5 [1. 82 f.]; Paus. 7,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Baladié, Le P…

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Historical geography

(3,973 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Historical geography (HG) is a branch of geography or, to be precise, historiography and is concerned with the ever changing relationship between human beings and the landscape. As well as verbal (literary, epigraphic, numismatic) and representational (archaeological) evidence of the past, its main source is the topographical framework of historical events. Nowadays, HG is essentially characterized by two different paths of scholarly rese…

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…

Crathis

(340 words)

Author(s): Parra, Maria Cecilia (Pisa) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
(Κρᾶθις; Krâthis). [German version] [3] River in Bruttium that rises near  Consentia and flows into the sea near Thurii, today known as Crati. Legend held that its water could be used to dye the hair of people and animals blond (Eur. Tro. 228; Ael. NA 12,36; Aristot. Mir. 169). The valley of C. formed the main connection between inner Bruttium and the plains of  Sybaris. The river received its name from Achaean colonists after the name of a river in their homeland (Hdt. 1,145); according to other sou…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…

Menophanes

(284 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μηνοφάνης; Mēnophánēs). [German version] [1] General of Mithradates VI, 88 BC General of Mithradates VI. In the first Mithradatic War, in 88 B.C., he defeated Roman troops under M'. Aquillius [I 4] (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,22,7). It is doubtful whether this was the battle at Proton Pachion mentioned by Appianus (Mith. 72) [3. 110127]. According to Pausanias (3,23,3-5), in the same year, either on orders of the King or on his own initiative, M. conquered, plundered and destroyed Delos, killed the foreigners and Delian men there, and enslaved their wive…

Pontus

(931 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ὁ Πόντος/ ho Póntos, Lat. Pontus). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Location Region on the south coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) between Paphlagonia (west), Colchis (east) and Cappadocia (south), divided into a narrow northern coastal plain with various Greek towns (cf. Amisus, Cotyora, Pharnaceia, Trapezus) and an interior south of the northern Anatolian frontier mountain range around Iris [3] and Lycus [19], still known into the 1st cent. BC as Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον/ Kappadokía hē perì tòn Eúxeinon (Pol. 5,43,1; cf. ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία/ hē …

Drepanon

(501 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Δρέπανον; Drépanon). Name of several foothills; the external shape of the mountain may have given rise to the name D. (‘sickle’). [German version] [1] Vorgebirge an der Nordküste von Westkreta On the north coast of western Crete (Ptol. 3,15,5), known in antiquity and today as D. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography M. Guarducci, Inscript. Cret. 2,10. [German version] [2] Nördlichster Vorsprung der Peloponnesos in den Korinth. Golf Northernmost outcrop of the Peloponnese into the Corinthian Gulf, 7 km north-east of Rhion (with which i…

Zenodotium

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζηνοδότιον; Zēnodótion). City in Osroene near Nicephorium (Arr. FGrH 156 F 33; Plut. Crassus 17,6: Ζηνοδοτία/ Zēnodotía; Cass. Dio 40,13,2), not more precisely locatable. When the pro-consul M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus marched across the  Euphrates [2] against the Parthians in the autumn of 54 BC, he felt compelled to capture the city, which was under the tyranny of a Greek called Apollonius, by force, and for this the army proclaimed him imperator. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 19.

Lacus Fucinus

(190 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] A lake that often overflows because it has no outlet (155 km2, 655 m above sea level) in the area of the Marsi between Sulmona and the national park of Abruzzo. Caesar contemplated draining it (Suet. Iul. 44), Augustus prevented it (Suet. Claud. 20), Claudius realized it in part by laying a 5.65 km long drainage to the Liris (Suet. Claud. 20f.), under Nero the project was stopped (Plin. HN 36,124). According to CIL IX 3915, renewed flooding in AD 117 made it necessary to reclaim the borderin…

Nauplia

(433 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ναυπλία/ Nauplía, Byzantine τὸ Ναύπλιον/ tò Naúplion or τὸ Ἀνάπλι/ tò Anápli, present-day Nafplio). [German version] I. Position Port on a rocky peninsula near the Kolpos Argolikos (Str. 8,2,2; Scyl. 49; 6,11; Ptol. 3,16,11) on the northern slope of the town’s mountain, Akronafplia (formerly Iç Kale, 85m high). Greater parts of the Hellenistic acropolis wall lie under the later Byzantine- Venetian- Turkish fort. It lies to the north-west of the Palamidi (215 m high) which is surmounted by a fortress built by the Venetians in 1711-1714. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stutt…

Senonia

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] At the end of the 4th cent. AD a province (officially Lugdunensis S.: Notitia Galliarum 4,1; Notitia Dign. Occ. 3,31; 22,19; Senonica: ibid. 1,117; cf. Laterculus 2,16) of the Septem Provinciae dioikesis of the Galliae praefectura with the civitates of Senones (as a centre of administration, formerly Agedincum), Autessiodurum, Tricasses, Meldi, Parisii, Carnutes and Autricum (modern Chartres) and Aureliani (modern Orléans). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…
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