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Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Narbo

(635 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome City in Gallia Narbonensis on the right bank of the lower Atax in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (Strab. 4,1,12), modern Narbonne. In the pre-Roman period there was a settlement here on the mythical road of Heracles from Spain to the Rhône. From the 6th cent. BC, 4 km from N., there was an oppidum on the Montlaurès Hill, which was known by the name of Naro (Avien. 587; [1]). The lagoon between N. and the sea is called límnē Narbōnîtis (λίμνη Ναρβωνῖτις; cf. Str. 4,1,9) in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 54. With the creation of a Roman province there by Domitius [I 3] (cf. [2]) in 118/7 BC, the Colonia N…

Europe/Europa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Εὐρώπη; Eurṓpē). [German version] [1] Geographic concept Originally reserved for the female mythological figure ( E. [2]; cf. Hes. Theog. 357, 359), as a geographical term E. initially referred to central Greece (cf. Hom. H. ad Apollinem 251, 291) and the Thracian-Macedonian north (cf. Hdt. 6,43; 7,8), as opposed to the Peloponnese in the south, the Ionian Islands in the west and the Aegean islands, and separated from the Asiatic land-mass by the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont, Propontis, the Bosporus and Pontus Euxinus. As awareness grew during the ‘great colonisation’ that the Black Sea/Pontus Euxinus was enclosed to the east (Mimnermus in the 7th cent. still has it differently; cf. Str. 1,2,40), the frontier between E. (used with increasing frequency to describe all land outside Asia, cf. Hecat. in Hdt. 4,36) and Asia became problematic; for here the two regions were not clearly distinguished from one another: the eastern frontier of E. was set at the Tanais (Hdt. 4,45,2; Str. 1,4,7; 7,4,5; 11,1,1), at the Sea of Azov/Maeotis (Hdt. 4,45,2; Str. 7,4,5), at the Cimmerian Bosporus (cf. Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Hdt. 4,45,2; Str. 7,4,5; Aisch. Prom. 733-735, 790), at the Phasis (Hdt. 4,45,2), in the Caucasus between Pontus Euxinus and the Caspian Sea/Kaspia Thalatta (Str. 1,4,7), at the Araxes (Hdt. 4,40) and at the Kaspia Thalatta (Hdt. 4,40). While the frontier to the south with Libya ─ assigned sometimes to Asia (Agathemerus 2,2; Sall. Iug. 17; Luc. 9,411), but sometimes to E. (Sil. Pun. 1,195), sometimes seen as its own continent (Hdt. 2,16; 4,42; Cic.…

Phea, Phia

(131 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φεά/ Pheá, Φαιά/ Phaiá, Φεαί/ Pheaí). Foothills and port on the coast of Elis [1] on the isthmus of the peninsula of Ichthys (modern Katakolo) (Hom. Od. 15,297; H. Hom. 1,427; Thuc. 2,25,3f.; 7,31,1; Pol. 4,9,9; Diod. Sic. 12,43,4; Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; Str. 8,3,12; 26f.; Paus. 5,18,6; Pol. 4,9,9; Plin. HN 4,13; 22) near modern Katakolo, harbour for Olympia. Traces of a settlement were found on the hill of Pontikokastro (acropolis) and under water in the Bay …

Comana

(251 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states [German version] [1] City in Cataonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Education / Culture (Κόμανα; Kómana). City in  Cataonia (Str. 12,2,3), Hittite Kummanni; temple state of the goddess Ma-Enyo (Artemis Tauropolios;  Enyo; Roman  Bellona). Bishopric as early as the Severian period (2nd/3rd cents AD); today's Şar. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography …

Nola

(572 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Pilgrimage Town in Campania, north east of the Vesuvius (Str. 5,4,8; It. Ant. 109,2; Tab. Peut. 6,4); it still bears the same name today. N. lies at the foot of the Appennines, on a broad plain approximately halfway from Capua to Nuceria, on a major traffic artery leading from Etruria to Poseidonia/Paestum, subsequently known as via Popilia. We do not know what part the inhabitants of Chalcis [1] played in its foundation (Sil. Pun. 12,161; Just. Epit. 20,1,13). It is certain, however, that N. was originally founded by the Ausones (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 61; Pol. 2,17,1). The town may at times have been under Etruscan rule (Soph. in Dion.…

Proconnesus

(398 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προκόννησος/ Prokónnēssos, Lat. Proconnesus). Largest island of the Propontis, with an area of c. 130 square km, c. 10 km to the northwest of Arctonnesos, present-day Marmara Adası. The name P. is derived from πρόξ/ próx, 'doe' (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 148); Plin. (HN. 5,151) in addition also calls the island Elaphonnesos (derived from ἔλαφος/ élaphos, 'stag', cf. Ἐλαφόνησος/ Elaphónēsos, Schol. ibid.) and Neuris (from νεῦρον/ neûron, 'sinew, bow-string'). EM s. v. Προικόννησος/ Proikónnēsos offers a derivation from προΐξ/ proḯx, 'gift' (namely 'of marble'); a…

Propontis

(364 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προποντίς; Propontís). A sea between the Pontos Euxeinos (Black Sea) in the northeast (Bosporus [1]) and the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean) in the southwest (Hellespontus), between Thrace in the north and Mysia in the south, greatest length (from Callipolis to Nicomedia) 252 km, greatest breadth 74 km, modern Sea of Marmara. The P. was brought into existence by an early quaternary rift. The largest part of the area of the sea ( c. 11,500 km2) is formed by an area of land lowered 200 m, on which the islands perch (cf. the list of the islands in Plin. HN 5…

Petrocorii

(218 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πετροκόριοι; Petrokórioi). Tribe of Gallia Celtica (later Aquitania), on both banks of the Duranus (Dordogne) in what is now the Périgord (Str. 4,2,2 mentions the Petrokórioi among the 14 tribes of Aquitania between Garumna and Liger; Ptol. 2,7,9: Πετροκόριοι καὶ πόλις Οὐέσσουνα/ Petrokórioi kaì pólis Ouéssouna). Their neighbours to the north west were the Santoni, to the west the Bituriges Vivisci, to the south the Nitiobriges, to the south east the Cadurci and to the north east the Lemovices (Plin. HN 4,109; Not. Galliaru…

Pellene

(428 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πελλήνη/ Pellḗnē, Πελλάνα/ Pellána, ethnic name Πελληνεύς/ Pellēneús, Πελλανεύς/ Pellaneús). Town in the easternmost part of Achaea (Achaeans, with map), to the west of Sicyon (Paus. 7,26,12-27,12). From the Mycenaean Period (place name pre-Greek., Hom. Il. 2,574) onwards and into the 7th/6th cents. BC, P. was possibly located on the site of the kṓmē of the same name mentioned in Str. 8,7,5 . The town found itself in lengthy quarrels with Sicyon (POxy. 11,1365; 1…

Erymanthus

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἐρύμανθος; Erýmanthos). [German version] [1] Mountain ridge in the north west Pelopponese A mountain range extending up to 2,224 m in height and consisting of several chains stretching north-east to south-west; located in the north-western Peloponnese in the border area between  Elis and  Achaea, the earlier north-western mountain border of  Arcadia. Composed of layers of limestone, it drops away sharply for over 25 km in the north-west towards the flysch hills of Voundoukia; today also Olonos. The setting…

Thermodon

(132 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in Boeotia (Θερμώδων; Thermṓdōn). River (Hdt. 9,43,2: potamós; Paus. 9,19,3: cheímarros, ‘torrent’) of uncertain location in Boeotia, between Tanagra and Glisas, probably closer to Glisas. Possibly the modern Kalamítis, which flows on the south side of the Hypatus mountains (modern Sagmatás) and passes Glisas to the south [1. 222f.]. Identification with the Haemon [6] (Plut. Theseus 27,6; Plut. Demosthenes 19) is incorrect. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey. [German version] [2] River in Asia minor Coastal river (modern Terme); r…

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351; 358; 367; 371 f.; 983; [3]). In Late Antiquity, the town was called R. (Sid. Apoll…

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town …

Hira

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱρή/ Hirḗ, Ἰρή/ Irḗ, Εἶρα/ Eîra). Mountain stronghold in the inaccessible ravined area in the south of the upper Neda on the northern border of Messenia, possibly on the 864 m high Hagios Athanasios near Kakaletri (traces of ancient fortifications).  Aristomenes [1] led the battle against the Spartans from here in 500-490/489 BC (Third Messenian War). …

Ithome

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰθώμη; Ithṓmē). [German version] [1] Chalk mountain in Messenia This chalk mountain (modern Vurkano), rising to 802 m and dominating the Messenian plain, together with Eua, its southern secondary summit (modern Hagios Vassilios), forms the natural acropolis for the entire region of Messenia, and its centre in legend and history. The lengthy siege of Mt. I. was the main topic of Myron of Priene's prose novel on the Firs…

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection…

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon…
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