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Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Eurotas

(200 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Εὐρώτας; Eyrṓtas, ‘the abundantly-flowing’). The 82 km-long river (mythological derivation from king E. in Paus. 3,1,1f.) rises with its source-streams on the flat valley-watershed of the Alpheius between Mt. Parnon and Mt. Taygetus on the Asea plain, and in the north-western foothills of the Arcadian Mt. Parnon (the presumption of subterranean links in the region of its source between the E. and Lake Taka, made in Paus. 8,44,4, is improbable), and, following a tectonic depression (‘the E. trough’), enters the 18 km-long and c. 10 km-wide Laconian basin north o…

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…

Polichne

(171 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Πολίχνη; Políchnē). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Olympieum in the SW of Syracusae Settlement in the Olympieum, a sanctuary of Zeus on the right bank of the Anapus in the south west of Syracusae, where in 414 BC Gylippus stationed part of his cavalry to hamper the Athenians on the Plemmyrium from foraging in the Syracusan hinterland (Thuc. 7,4,7; Diod. Sic. 13,7,5; cf. [1. 41, 4110]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H.-P. Drögemüller, Syrakus (Gymnasium Beiheft 6), 1969. [German version] [2] Town in NW Crete This item can be found on the following maps: Crete Town …

Prophthasia

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Προφθασία/ Prophthasía, Str. 11,8,9; 15,2,8; Ptol. 6,19,4; 8,25,8 N.; Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 16 = GGM 1,253: Φρά/ Phrá in Ἀναύων χώρα/ Anaúōn chṓra that is otherwise unknown; Plin. HN 6,61: P.). Possibly the city of Φράδα/ Phráda (Charax of Pergamum FGrH 103 F 20) renamed in this way by Alexander [4] the Great probably in 330 BC in the region of Drangiana, generally identified with modern Farāh in Afghanistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. …

Clepsydra

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κλεψύδρα; Klepsýdra). [German version] [1] Spring near Messene Spring from which the well named after Arsinoe, the mother of Asclepius, in the agora in Messene was fed (Paus. 4,31,6; 33,1), possibly corresponds to the village spring in Mavromati or a spring below Ithome peak ( Ithome [1]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messene, RE Suppl. 15, 142ff. D. Musti, M. Torelli, Pausania. Guida della Grecia 4, 1991, 252ff. [German version] [2] Spring of the Acropolis of Athens Since the Neolithic period the most important spring of the Acropolis of …

Motyca

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυκα, Μότουκα; Mótyka, Mόtouka). City of the Siculi in the southeast of Sicily (Ptol. 3,4,14), modern Módica to the south of Ragusa. Finds from as early as the prehistorical period. Ancient inscriptions from the area (IG XIV 243-253). The ager Mutycensis was the ager decumanus of the Roman province of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101; 120), the Mutycenses were stipendiarii (Plin. HN 3,91). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. M., RE 16, 407  BTCGI 10, 169-177  Morgantina Studies, 5 vols., 1981-1996.

Sebastopolis

(180 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Σεβαστόπολις; Sebastópolis). [German version] [1] City in Caria City in the mountainous country of southeastern Caria between Tabae and Themisonium on the road from Heraclea [6] and Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra, at modern Kızılca. The original place name is unknown; in the Imperial period the city was renamed S. and is recorded in inscriptions and on coins (HN 624; [1. 150 f.]). In literature it is first mentioned in the early Byzantine period (Hierocles, Synékdēmos 689). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinasiatische Münzen, 1901/2. L. Bürchner,…

Dioptra

(376 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Werner (Graz)
[German version] (ἡ διόπτρα; hē dióptra). Surveyor's instrument for measuring angles and distances or the lateral width of distant objects (e.g. the apparent distance of stars from one another and the height of walls and mountains). The applications included the construction of aqueducts, house-building or fire-telegraphy (cf. Pol. 8,37,2; 9,19,8f.). At the beginning of his work entitled D., which covers the theory and practice of surveying and mapping (πραγματεία διοπτρική), Hero of Alexandria (1st cent. AD?) documented in detail the construction and…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Naustathmus

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ναύσταθμος; Naústathmos). [German version] [1] Harbour town in the south east of Sicily Harbour town in the south east of Sicily, on the coast between Syracusae and the mouth of the Helorus [2] (Plin. HN 3,89), probably at Fontane Bianche. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 58. [German version] [2] Harbour in the north eastern Cyrenaica Harbour in north eastern Cyrenaica, on the eastern side of the promontory of the same name (modern Ras el-Hilal). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM 1,83); S…

Pharaea

(74 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαραία, Φηραία; Pharaía, Phēraía). Settlement in north western Arcadia (Pol. 4,77,5; Str. 8,3,32), no more precisely identifiable. Possibly at the modern Lambia, or rather the ancient site at present-day Nemuta on the eastern slopes of the Oros Pholoï. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 35-37  E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88  F. Bölte, s.v. Ph. (1), RE 19, 1809f.

Saltus Manlianus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The narrow passage of Puerto de Morata in the Sierra de Vicor, south-west of Zaragoza, probably named after the praetor P. Manlius [I 5], who passed through there in 195 BC during the conquest of Hispania citerior under the supreme command of the consul Cato [1] (Liv. 40,39,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 166  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 146 f.

Phocaeae

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φωκαῖαι/ Phokaîai). Unidentified quarter (χωρίον/ chōríon) of the city of Leontini. Some aristocrats from Leontini, who had gone away and settled in Syracuse (Syracusae) but then left again because of  conflicts, withdrew to Ph. and the nearby fortress of Bricinniae in 422 BC. Many of the democrats previously driven out of Leontini also soon gathered here in order to take up the fight with Syracuse (Thuc. 5,4,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 218.

Pholoe

(140 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φολόη/ Pholóē). The monotonous conglomerate surface, some 11 km long and 8 km wide  to the north of the middle reaches of the Alpheius [1], up to 798 m high in the north, 640 m in the south, to the east with a steep edge merging with the Erymanthus [2] mountains, to the west with lowish ranges of marl hills (Strab. 8,3,1; 3,5; 3,32; 8,3; Paus. 6,21,5; 8,24,4 ; Ptol. 3,14,35 ; Mela 2,43; Plin. HN 4,21), modern Pholoi Oros. P. is unsettled and poor in springs, today covered with oak…

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.
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