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Menophanes

(284 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μηνοφάνης; Mēnophánēs). [German version] [1] General of Mithradates VI, 88 BC General of Mithradates VI. In the first Mithradatic War, in 88 B.C., he defeated Roman troops under M'. Aquillius [I 4] (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,22,7). It is doubtful whether this was the battle at Proton Pachion mentioned by Appianus (Mith. 72) [3. 110127]. According to Pausanias (3,23,3-5), in the same year, either on orders of the King or on his own initiative, M. conquered, plundered and destroyed Delos, killed the foreigners and Delian men there, and enslaved their wive…

Zenodotium

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζηνοδότιον; Zēnodótion). City in Osroene near Nicephorium (Arr. FGrH 156 F 33; Plut. Crassus 17,6: Ζηνοδοτία/ Zēnodotía; Cass. Dio 40,13,2), not more precisely locatable. When the pro-consul M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus marched across the  Euphrates [2] against the Parthians in the autumn of 54 BC, he felt compelled to capture the city, which was under the tyranny of a Greek called Apollonius, by force, and for this the army proclaimed him imperator. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 19.

Senonia

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] At the end of the 4th cent. AD a province (officially Lugdunensis S.: Notitia Galliarum 4,1; Notitia Dign. Occ. 3,31; 22,19; Senonica: ibid. 1,117; cf. Laterculus 2,16) of the Septem Provinciae dioikesis of the Galliae praefectura with the civitates of Senones (as a centre of administration, formerly Agedincum), Autessiodurum, Tricasses, Meldi, Parisii, Carnutes and Autricum (modern Chartres) and Aureliani (modern Orléans). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Pedasum

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πήδασον; Pḗdason). Small settlement (πολίχνιον/ políchnion) in the territory of Stratoniceia in Caria (Str. 13,1,59); its precise location has yet to be established [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. Pedasa (2), RE 19, 27.

Tibareni

(151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τιβαρηνοί/ Tibarēnoí). People (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 204; Xen. An. 5,5,2; Scymn. 914; Mela 1,106; Plin. HN 6,11; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 124; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τιβαρηνία) of Scythian descent (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 159) on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.), neighbouring the Mossynoeci to the east and the Chalybes to the west and south; Cotyora was in their region. Under Darius [1] I and Xerxes, the T. were part of the 19th Satrapy (Hdt. 3,94) and served in Xerxes' army i…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Teuthrania

(163 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τευθρανία; Teuthranía). Region or its capital in the Mysian valley of the lower Caicus [1]. The name is derived from Teuthras, who reportedly took in Auge [2] and her son Telephus [1] as guests when they were washed ashore in Mysia. The region is generally located from the Aeolian coast between Atarneus and Cisthene (at modern Gömeç) inland about as far up as the upper Macestus. The site of the city (Str. 13,1,69; Plin. HN 5,126) has been located (though without certainty) near mo…

Elaver

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern Allier, source at 1,430 m elevation on Mont Lozère; flows from the left side into the Liger below Noviodunum after a course of 375 km (Caes. B Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Tyndaris

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…

Arcathias

(110 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀρκαθίας; Arkathías). Son of  Mithridates VI (different from Ariarathes IX [1; 2; 3]), led 10,000 horsemen from Lesser Armenia into the opening battle of the Mithridatic Wars (autumn of 89 BC) at the Amnias against  Nicomedes IV; he marched with a Pontic army in 88/87 BC through Macedonia and organized the conquered territories into  satrapies. He fell ill at the Tisaeum in Magnesia and died (App. Mith. 63-65; 137; 156). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Magie, 1105 note 41 2 B.C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator King of Pont…

Zerbis

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name given in Plin. HN 6,118 to a left-bank tributary of the Tigris in Adiabene. It remains questionable whether he meant the Lycus [14] (modern Al-Zāb al-Kabīr, 'Greater Zab') or the Caprus [2] (modern Al-Zāb al-Ṣaġīr, 'Lesser Zab'). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Niphates

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νιφάτης/ Niphátēs). Mountain range on the Thospitis Limne (Van Gölü) in Armenia, belonging to the eastern Taurus massif (Doğu Toros Dağları) (Str. 11,12,4; 11,13,3; 14,2; 8; Plin. HN 5,27; Mela 1,15,81; Plut. Alexandros 31,10; Ptol. 5,13,4; 6,1,1; Amm. Marc. 23,6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. N.; cf. Hor. Carm. 2,9,20; Verg. G. 3,30; Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,4) - in a narrower sense probably İhtiyarşahap Dağları with Mevzi Dağı (3446 m) in the south of Van Gölü or Ala Dağları with Tendürek Dağı (3533 m) in the north-east of Van Gölü. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Sy…

Stadiasmos

(188 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (σταδιασμός/ stadiasmós) is the term for distance in stádia (Str. 1,3,2; 4,6; 2,1,17; 4,7; Stadion [1]) analogous to which miliasmós is the term for distance in milia 'miles' (Str. 6,2,1; cf. Eust. ad Hom. Od. 2,133,2: miliasmoû ... ḕ stadiasmoû). Consequently the stadiasmôn epidromḗ (Marcianus, Epit. peripli Menippi 3 = GGM 1,566,23), was an abridgment, made by Timosthenes of Rhodes of his own 10-volume description of harbours (mid-3rd cent. BC), a 'compilation of distance data in stádia' from harbour to harbour. It was not until the 2nd cent. AD that stadiasmos was a…

Polemonium

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολεμώνιον/ Polemṓnion). Port city on the south shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Ptol. 5,6,4; Peripl. m. Eux. 30-33; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.; Plin. HN 6,11; Tab. Peut. 10,3; Hierocles, Synekdemos 37) at the modern Bolaman, 10 km west of Fatsa, where the Sidenus (Str. 1,3,7; 2,5,25; 3,3,14-16; modern Bolaman Irmağı) flows into a broad bay. Named after Polemon [4] I (37-7 BC: EM s. v. Πολεμώνιος). The town was probably built on the site of Side, a settlement which was abandoned by Strabo's (12,3,16) time (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,16, who emphasizes the Greek tradition of P.). O…

Mare Germanicum

(573 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (North Sea). This shelf sea, a marginal sea of the Atlantic ( Oceanus), assumed its present form in the Jura. In the west, it is separated from the Atlantic by the Straits of Dover, in the north-west, by the line of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In the east, the Skagerrak separates it from the Baltic Sea ( Mare Suebicum). There are few bordering archipelagos north-west and south-east. The Mare Germanicum (MG) extends over an area of 0.58 million km2, it contains 0.054 km3 of water, its medium depth is around 94 m, its greatest depth is 725 m near Arendal in th…

Gorgopis limne

(99 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γοργῶπις λίμνη; Gorgôpis límnē). In Aesch. Ag. 302, it belongs to the chain of fire signals from Ida to Mycenae between  Cithaeron and Aigiplanktos ( Gerania in the Megaris) and is therefore regarded as identical with the eastern part of the gulf of Corinth, the bay of Eleusis, and several lakes on the Isthmus of Corinth (Limni Vouliagmenis to the west of the Gerania, cf. Xen. Hell. 4,5,6; Limni Psatho to the east of Schinos). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. G. 1), RE 7, 1658f. W. Leiner, Die Signaltechnik der Ant., 1982, 59ff. Philippson/Kirst…

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Pirustae

(170 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πειροῦσται/ Peiroûstai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,16,8) in the ore-rich region between Lim and Drin in modern Albania, first mentioned in Liv. 45,26,13 in the context of the conclusion of the 3rd Macedonian War, 167 BC, as a civitas libera et immunis. At that time, its relationship with Rome was governed by a treaty. However, in 54 BC the P. undertook excursions into the Roman province of Illyricum for plunder. In reaction, the proconsul of the province, Caesar, restored order in the frontier region by taking h…
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