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Roma

(730 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] [1] Personification Dea Roma; θεὰ Ῥώμη/ theà Rhṓmē as a goddess: the cult worship of Roman power began in the Greek world in the early 2nd cent. BC with the establishment of festivals (Rhomaia), priestly offices (Miletus: LSAM 49), temples and other monuments in honour of Rome. Many of these cults are concentrated on the personified deity of R. (Personification). Their representations of R. vary between a standing figure and an enthroned one ([1]; for a monument (?) representing Romulus …

Rhomaea

(181 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖα; Rhōmaîa). The Rhomaea were quinquennial or yearly festivals, which were celebrated in the Greek world from the early 2nd cent. BC onwards in honour of Roma [IV.]. Their model were the traditional indigenous cults of deities and heroes (Hero cult); in individual cases the Rhomaea were celebrated together with an already existing local cult. The Rhomaea comprised processions, sacrifices and agones (cf. SEG 30,1073: Chios) - e.g. athletic and musical competitions (Xanthus, SEG 28,1246) and games on horseback (Oropus and Magnesia: [1. …

Taurobolium

(413 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] (ταυροβόλιον; taurobólion). The taurobolium is known primarily through its depiction in Christian sources (see below), according to which an initiate to the cult of the Mater Magna stood in a pit and had the blood of a bull ( taúros), which was sacrificed above him, flow over his head. However, the validity of this depiction is debatable [1.314-320]. The development history of the taurobolium can be divided into three phases. In its first phase (middle of the 2nd cent. BC - middle of the 2nd cent. AD), the ritual, which first appeared in Asia…

Ptolemaia

(361 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] (Πτολεμαῖα/ Ptolemaîa). A festival celebrated as an element of the ruler cult in honour of Ptolemy [1] I Soter and his successors. The first Ptolemaia were probably established in 282 BC in Alexandria - after the death of Ptolemy - by Ptolemy [3] II Philadelphus with the participation of theōroí (Theoria) of Athens (SEG 38,60; [1. 132 f.]; with regard to the dating [2. 50-56]). From 279 BC they were celebrated as a festival that took place every four years; an invitation to attend was sent to the Nesiotic League (Nesiotai [2]; Syll.3 390) among others. From then on, nu…

Procession

(1,904 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford) | Merkt, Andreas (Mainz)
[German version] I. Definition A procession (Greek πομπή/ pompḗ, Latin pompa) can be defined as the action of a group of people who are 'proceeding' (Latin procedere) in a formalized and orderly sequence. A distinction can be made between two types of formal processions: those that take place irregularly and those that are held at regular intervals. Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford) II. Greco-Roman antiquity [German version] A. Irregularly occuring processions During Classical antiquity, processions that took place irregularly were ritualized events involving a variety o…