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Fuscus, Arellius

(189 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Rhetor in the Augustan period; came from Asia (Sen. Controv. 9,6,16). In the twenties BC, at the latest, he probably taught in Rome, more often in Greek than in Latin (Sen. Suas. 4,5). Amongst his outstanding students were  Papirius Fabianus (who later turned away again from F.'s style) and Ovid; close contact with the imperial house is shown by F.'s homage to Maecenas (through the frequent quoting of Vergil's verses, Sen. Suas. 3,5) and probably also by the fact that Seneca menti…

Commentarii

(747 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Continuous records (  acta ) in the nature of minutes, documenting the activities of official bodies and their agents (magistrates, collegia, city councils), but also perhaps commercial enterprises, i.e. large private households (Cic. Att. 7,3,7); but the term is not attested for actual balance sheets. The interests involved, and therefore the content (down to the private ‘notebook’, Cic. De or. 1,208), level of standardization and publication of records can vary greatly. Characteristic of the commentarius, as an individual record is that it is almost a…

Lunaria

(160 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A Latin textual genre attested by numerous mediaeval MSS. Lunaria provide compilations of prescriptions and prognoses for all the days of a lunar month. In content they follow ancient astrological rules (Cato Agr.; Verg. G.; Plin. HN), but the tradition can not be reconstructed without a discontinuity [2. 18]. They correspond to the selenodromia of Greek literature, which certainly do trace back to the ancient prognostica [3; 4]. In this form the lunaria can be classified into the (mostly astrologically based) hemerological calendars, which range from…

Ephemeris

(109 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (ἐφημερίς; ephēmerís, pl. ephēmerídes). A diary for personal notes, as office or accounts journal. The common term for such notes is   hypomnḗma(ta) , Lat.   commentarii or   acta . Ephemeris is found as the title of literary works that have been passed down or used, i.a. for the ‘war journal’ of  Alexander [4] the Great used by the historian  Ptolemy I (FGrH 117) and the fictitious Ephemerìs toû Troikoû polémou, the Trojan War diary from the (fictitious)  Dictys Cretensis. Plutarch (Caes. 22) describes Caesar's commentarii as ephemeris; however, in the  Corpus Caesa…

Calendar

(3,617 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) [German version] A. Traditions (CT) Of the many calendar systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity only the Jewish and the Julian Calendars survived in use beyond the late classical period. For many other systems, such as the Gaulish calendar, or that of Coligny, or the conventional lunisolar calendar of the Eastern Mediterranean, there are clear breaks in the tradition after the 4th cent. AD. The Julian Calendar, the system adopted by the Roman administration, was taken over by the Chri…

Passennus Paulus Propertius Blaesus, C.

(126 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (Form of the name according to  CIL 11,5405, from Assisi). Roman elegiac and lyric poet of the late 1st cent. AD. He is known only from the letters of Pliny the Younger (Plinius [2] P. Caecilius Secundus, C. , Plin. Ep. 6,15,1; 9,22,1f.), who held him in great esteem as an elegiac and lyric poet and described him as an equestrian and descendant of the elegiac poet Propertius. His friendship with Pliny and with L. Iavolenus Priscus, the legal scholar and consul of AD 86, are indica…

Aetiology

(1,993 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Rüpke
[No German version] I. Greek literature Aetiology is the term given to an explanation, generally referring to a mythical past (aetiological myth  Myth), of the αἴτιον (aítion), i.e. of the origin, of some phenomenon affecting the present-day situation of the author and his public, whether it be an object, a city, a custom, or, as is frequently the case, a religious ritual.Up until the 3rd cent. BC aetiology is not the preserve of any particular literary form but in the various forms represents a forma…

Breviarium

(167 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Short, narrative form of  historiography and as such, distinct from the primarily non-narrative  chronicle. As detailed history, breviaria seek to entertain ( Velleius Paterculus), but instruction, leading to abbreviation as a didactic technique, is in the foreground: the target groups were above all the upwardly mobile classes that needed a means of educating themselves -- this explains the increase in that type of textual material in the 4th cent.; (rhetorical) education is often both the starti…

Feriale

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. Term Feriale is the term used in the title of a Campanian inscription of AD 387, containing a list of seven annually celebrated rituals (InscrIt 13,2,283). From this text, known as the feriale Campanum, historians now apply this term to similar compilations within the Latin sphere: In contrast with actual calendars (  fasti ), ferialia do not list all of the days within a year, but only those associated with certain specific rituals. It makes sense to extend the academic application of the term feriale to include comparable written compilations in other culture…

Hemerologion

(288 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (ἡμερολόγιον; hēmerológion) is a text arranged according to the days of the year. The ancient spectrum of meaning ranges from  calendar (Plut. Caesar 59) to diary (Cosmas Indicopleustes, Topographia christiana PG 88,276A, 6th cent. AD) and is still used in the specialized Latin of the 19th cent. in this way. In modern scientific language hemerologion is used to describe two quite different objects. In Egyptology and the study of the Ancient Orient, hemerologion refers to lists with a divinatory (and as a corresponding frame of reference - cosmologic…

Epideixis

(438 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (ἐπίδειξις; epídeixis). One of the three   genera causarum . Aristotle determined the epideixis as the type of a speech that does not elicit the listener's judgement or decision, but simply places him into the role of spectator ( theōrós): the speech itself is what is being tested (Rh. 1358b). It is not a necessary, but a plausible consequence that the function of directing the attention towards the speech itself is supported by certain topics, that is, topics of praise or reprimand, thus giving preference to mimetic t…

Laronia

(60 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Female critic of sexual moral hypocrisy in Juv. 2,36-65; if this is meant to be a historical person (thus [2]), she could be identical with the L. characterized as a rich widow in Mart. 2,32,5f. (also not definitely historical). Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) Bibliography 1 PIR2 L 113 2 S. Morton Braund, Juvenal. Satires Book 1, 1996, 129.

Parapegma

(485 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (παράπηγμα; parápēgma) in ancient usage describes a peg calendar, which permitted the tracking of calendar dates (e.g. the 'Fasti Guidizzolenses' for the whole year, InscrIt 13,2,234, but probably also weekday calendars) by the (usually daily) movement of pegs. This form of calendrical orientation by means of individual pegging was particularly interesting where it permitted keeping track of calendar systems which deviated from 'civil' calendars of the time, i.e. for phases of the …

Week

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Chronological periodicity, typically 4-10 days, linked with particular public activities (religious, political, commercial), often in the form of market days ( nundinae ) [1]. [German version] I. Types Two different forms of 'week' were known in antiquity. (1) The type corresponding to the modern week, of fixed length and ignoring the monthly calendar, only took hold gradually, at first in the form of the seven-day week ( h ebdomas), based on the Sabbath and probably regular from the time of the Jewish exile (587-539 BC), and the eight-day week ( o gdoas) of the Romans ( nundinum), also d…

Corpus Caesarianum

(554 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Modern name for the chronologically organized collection of  Caesar's own commentarii or those reporting on his wars. Bks. 1-7 (58-52 BC) and 8 (52/51) of the Bellum Gallicum (BG), 3 bks. On the Bellum civile (49/48; BC), Bellum Alexandrinum (48/47; BAl), Afric(an)um (47/46; BAfr), Hispaniense (45; ending mutilated; BHisp). The almost fully preserved collection already existed in the present form at the time of Suetonius (Suet. Iul. 56,1); Caesar's commentarii were handed down to the Middle Ages in this form only. Elucidation on the history of thei…

Nundinae

(43 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (etymology ‘nine days’), Roman name for the market days or markets taking place every eight days (i.e. every ninth day), and thus also forming a kind of public and private measure of time. Market (II.B.); Week Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)

Fasti

(2,200 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. The term Formed as an adjective from the Latin fās (‘divine right’; no etymological link with *fēs or *făs and their derivative terms fēriae, fēstus and fānum can be demonstrated [11. 134]), fastus in technical language is found only in association with dies, and in Rome then signifies those days on which certain public acts were held to be permitted. This concept gave a calendrical digest of such days ─ among which the dies fasti predominate ─ the name fasti. As regards both name and graphic form, the word displaced all other competing terms for  calenda…

Curiatius

(297 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Italian surname (Schulze, 355); according to Roman legend, Rome's war against Alba Longa under King Tullus Hostilius was decided through the fight between the triplet Curiatii brothers of Alba and the triplet Horatii brothers ( Horatius) of Rome, with the former being killed (Liv. 1,24f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,16-20). After the destruction of Alba, the family is said to have moved to Rome and to have been included among the Patricians (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The consul recorded in the fasti for 453 BC, member of the 1st collegium of the decemvirs for the d…

Calendar

(4,567 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Freydank, Helmut (Potsdam)
A. Basic Principles [German version] 1. Term Calendar developed its modern meaning in post-antiquity from the Latin word for ‘debt register’ (  Calendarium ). In the following, the term is taken as an element of  chronography within a culture which attempts to describe or regulate annual periodicities. Typically, a day represents the smallest unit of a calendar ( Clocks). Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) [German version] 2. Social Construction of Time Hunting and farming both demand a harmonization with seasonal variations ( Seasons), thus leading to annually repeated patte…

Saeculum

(750 words)

Author(s): Haase, Mareile (Toronto) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
('Age'). [German version] I. General Censorinus [4] takes up ancient theories on saeculum in ch. 17 of De die natali (AD 238) in the framework of chronographic remarks. His sources include Varro, who, according to Serv. Aen. 8,526, was the author of a text, De saeculis. Censorinus, DN 17,2, defined saeculum as 'the length of the longest possible human lifetime' ( spatium vitae humanae longissimum partu et morte definitum). Censorinus makes a clear distinction between Etruscan (17,5-6) and Roman traditions (17,7-15; Roman(or)um saeculum: 17,7): the ritual staging of the beginn…
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