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Kentumsprache

(199 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Das Merkwort K. (nach lat. centum) steht für solche idg. Sprachen, in denen von den uridg. Tektalen (Gutturale) die palatale Reihe , , g̑h und die unmarkierte k, g, gh in der unmarkierten zusammengefallen sind: uridg. * kreuh2- “blutiges Fleisch” > lat. cruor, griech. kréas, * k̑ṛd- “Herz” > lat. cor, griech. kardía. Sonst (in sog. Satemsprachen) werden die als eigenständige Phoneme erh. Palatale zu Zischlauten. In K. blieben die Labiovelare kw , gw , gwh (anfänglich) als Phoneme erh., z.B. im Urgriech. und Mykenischen mit der geringen Einbuße * kw > k neben u. Die fr…

Publius

(123 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Häufiges röm. Praenomen mit der Sigle P.; ältester Beleg Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; ca. 500 v. Chr.; Lapis Satricanus), danach griech. Πόπλιος. Der Name gehört etym. zu populus (“Heer” > “Volk”). Die Herleitung aus dem Etr. muß abgelehnt werden, denn das seltene etr. Puplie wurde aus einer ital. Sprache übernommen. Die Umbildung von poplico- zu pūblico- (nach pūbēs) wurde auch auf das Praen. und sein Derivat, das Gent. Pūblīlius, übertragen. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] Tragiker Griechisch schreibender Tragiker aus Rom, belegte ca. 85 v. Chr. an de…

Postumus

(964 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Praenomen Röm. Praenomen, das wie andere der sog. “Numeralpraenomina” (Quintus) Kindern nach der Reihenfolge der Geburt gegeben wurde: das Adj. p., “letzter”, meint hier “(weil) nach (dem Tod des Vaters) geboren” (vgl. P. [2]). Bei den Römern war P. bis ins 3. Jh. v. Chr. als Vorname in Gebrauch, dann nur noch als Cognomen. Die weitere Verbreitung eines ital. Individualnamens * Postumo- läßt sich aus der Entlehnung ins Etr. erschließen, wo daraus ein Gent. Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715) gebildet wurde; dies entspricht dem röm. Gent. Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter (…

Gutturale

(220 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Der nlat. terminus technicus G. (“Kehllaute”) für eine Konsonantenklasse ist traditionell (Nomina, die vor den Endungen ein g, k/c oder χ haben, heißen Gutturalstämme). Heute bevorzugt die Forsch. den angemesseneren Begriff “Tektale”, da bei der Hervorbringung dieser Kons. der Zungenrücken gegen das Munddach (lat. tectum) gedrückt wird, um den Luftstrom durch Enge bzw. Verschluß zu hindern, wodurch das für G. typische Geräusch erzeugt wird. Dem Uridg. spricht man neun oder zehn tektale Phoneme zu. Die g. Verschlußlaute ver…

Indogermanen

(908 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] A. Definition, Allgemeines, Methoden Mit I. meint man sowohl die Träger einzelner indogermanischer Sprachen als auch die des rekonstruierten Uridg. (uridg. Grundsprache) oder etwa des Urgriech. Der zu Beginn des 19. Jh. erbrachte Nachweis der sprachlichen Verwandtschaft hat die Frage nach den Sprechern der Grundsprache aufkommen lassen. In die Vorgesch. wurde mit diesem neuen Begriff das Postulat eingeführt, daß ein Volk mit einer charakteristischen Kultur zu suchen sei. Doch hängt d…

Proculus

(587 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Basel) | Et al.
Röm. Praenomen ( P. Iulius, ein Zeitgenosse des Romulus [1]), und sekundär Cognomen. Der Bildung nach ein Deminutivum (älter * prokelo-) zum Stamm * proko- ( klass. procus “Bewerber, Freier”), bedeutet es urspr. etwa “wer (das Erbe?) fordert, beansprucht”. Etym. ist Proca (König von Alba Longa) anzuschließen. Das schon früh selten gewordene Praen. lebt in Ableitungen, den Gent. Procilius und Proculeius, fort. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] röm. Jurist, 1. Jh. Der Jurist aus der Zeit der Julio-Claudier, verm. Schüler des Antistius [II 3] Labeo…

Alteuropäisch

(332 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] A. Definition Von dem Indogermanisten H. Krahe (1898-1965) etablierter t.t., mit dem er ein auf das Uridg. folgendes, relativ einheitliches Stadium als Vorstufe der im europ. Raum in histor. Zeit bezeugten Sprachen Kelt., German., Baltisch, Latinofaliskisch, Oskoumbrisch, Venetisch und Illyr. postuliert. Diese Sprachstufe und ihr urspr. Verbreitungsgebiet erschließt er aus Gewässernamen (“a. Hydronymie”), die ungefähr im 2. Jt. v. Chr. entstanden sein sollen. Als Folge des Vordring…

Orthography

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] A. General (CT) This article covers only phenomena appertaining to alphabetic scripts (an example of a syllabic script would be the Mycenaean). Shorthand scripts are also excluded; although the standardization of abbreviations certainly falls within the scope of orthography. The word ὀρθογραφία, 'correct spelling; spelling according to accepted usage', is attested since the 2nd cent. BC (cf. the grammarian Tryphon). Since Antiquity, orthography has signif…

Vopiscus

(74 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Uncommon Roman praenomen (in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,37,1 Οὐοπῖσκος/ Ouopîskos) to be found in V. Iulius ( cos. in 473 BC). According to ancient evidence, vopīscus is a term for a child whose twin is stillborn. The etymology of the term is disputed. As a cognomen, it appears in one of the alleged authors of the Historia Augusta , Flavius V. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 59-60; 141; 275  Walde/Hofmann 2, 835.

Quintus

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Common Roman praenomen Common Roman praenomen ; abbreviation: Q.; Greek Κόιντος/ Kóintos. It is identical to the ordinal quīntus (‘fifth’); in Oscan-Umbrian, this name is represented by Pompo and the like, with the nomina gentilicia Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Like other so-called ‘numeral praenomina’, the former individual name could be given to children according to their birth order in the early period. In no case is Q. derived from quīntīlis (‘July’) because the name of this month is in turn already a derivative of quīntus (Months, names of the). The nomen ge…

Volero

(46 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A 'lost' Roman praenomen without siglum, in Degrassi, FCap., recorded in 37 for the consular tribune of 399 BC, Volero Publilius [I 2] P.f. Voler. n. Philo. Etymologically it is an n-stem extension of Volusus / Volesus. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 59; 169 f.; 190.

Satem languages

(242 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] In phonetics and phonology, the term satem (Avest. satəm, ‘hundred’) is employed to characterize those Indo-European languages which - unlike centum languages - preserve the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) series of palatal stops , , g̑h as independent phonemes. The change of palatal tectals (Gutturals) into affricates (such as č, ć) or fricatives is a common phenomenon in the history of languages. Not all languages did necessarily take the same path in the development from PIE * k̑ṃtó- to Avestan satəm, Sanskrit śatám, Lithuanian šim̃tas or Old Church Slavonic sto. …

Titus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I Greek (Τίτος/ Títos). [German version] [I 1] Companion of Paul Important 'assistant' and 'partner' of Paul (Paulus [II 2]; 2 Cor 8,23), of unknown origin. Taken by Paul to the Apostles' Convent in Jerusalem as a 'Gentile Christian', he was not compelled to be circumcised there, in spite of the demands of the Judaists (Gal 2:1-3). Paul sent T. to Corinth on several occasions as his negotiator (2 Cor 7:6 f.; 7:13 f.; he also appeared as an independent co-organizer of the collects: 8:6; 8:16 …

Sextus

(2,046 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Author of a collection of 'gnomes' The name 'Sextus' is associated with a Greek collection of 610 maxims (Gnome) in all, known from two Greek MSS (Patm. 263, Vat. Gr. 742; Pap. Palau Rib. 225v, c. AD 400 offers 21 'gnomes'); they probably originated c. AD 200. Origenes [2] is the first to mention the title Σέξτου γνῶμαι ( Séxtou gnômai), remarking among other things that 'most Christians read them' (Orig. Contra Celsum 8,30). In about 399, Rufinus [II 6] Tyrannius translated a collection of 451 maxims into Latin, naming as author…

Word formation

(821 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] I. General The vocabulary (Lexicon) of a language is an open inventory which is or can be constantly expanded through the adoption of elements from other languages (loan words) or by the creation of words with the means of the language itself. Linguistic creativity is most clearly revealed in the adoption and creation of new items of vocabulary. Since speakers seldom reflect on the 'onomasiological' or content elements of the lexicon, their attention is probably first caught by form…

Tullus

(75 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen , which became unusual even before the introduction of sigla. There is no assured etymology. The best-known bearer was the third king of Rome, Tullus Hostilius [4] in the 7th cent. BC. Tullius, the nomen gentile derived from it, is first encountered with the sixth king Servius Tullius [I 4]. Of later bearers the best known is M. Tullius Cicero. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 58 f.; 186  Walde/Hofmann 2, 714.

Vibius

(2,209 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Uncommon Latin praenomen , abbreviation V. The etymology of the name is unknown. Like the identical nomen gentilicium, it derives from the Osco-Umbrian Vībie/o-. Related nomina gentilicia were Vibidius, Vibuleius, Vibulenus. The praenomen and its feminine equivalent Vībia- were loaned into Etruscan as Vipie and Vipia respectively. The nomen gentilicium formed from that, Vipi(e)na, appears in Latinized form as Vibenna . Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Curius Prefect of Caesar, to whom troops of L. Manlius [I 18] Torquatu…

Publius

(129 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Common Roman praenomen , abbreviated by the siglum P.; earliest evidence Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; c. 500 BC; Lapis Satricanus), thereafter Greek Πόπλιος ( Póplios). The name is etymologically linked to populus (‘army’ > ‘people’). A derivation from Etruscan must be rejected since the rare Etruscan word Puplie was inherited from an Italic language. The shift of poplico- to pūblico- (following pūbēs) was also adopted for the praenomen and its derivative Pūblīlius, the nomen gentile. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian of Rome who wrote in Gr…

Tiberius

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, prob. late 3rd/4th cent. (Τιβέριος/ Tibérios). Greek rhetor, probably of the late 3rd or 4th cents. AD, author of a small surviving treatise on figures (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ Δημοσθένει σχημάτων, Perì tòn parà Demosthénei schēmáton, 'On the figures in Demosthenes'), which uses Apsines as its main source. The latter's dates (1st half of 3rd cent. AD) are thus the only point of reference for dating T. The treatise deals separately with figures of thought (1-22) and figures of speech (23-42; Figures). E…

Gutturals

(254 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] The Neo-Latin terminus technicus gutturals (‘guttural sounds’) for a class of consonants is traditional (nouns that before the endings have a g, k/c or χ are called guttural stems). Today research prefers the more appropriate term ‘Tectals’, as in the articulation of this consonant the back of the tongue is pressed against the roof of the mouth (Latin tectum) in order to obstruct the stream of air through constriction or blockage, so producing the sound typical of gutturals. To the proto-Indo-European are attributed nine or ten tectal ph…
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