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Practical Philosophy

(2,595 words)

Author(s): Volpi, Franco (Vicenza)
[German version] A. Concept Beginning with Aristotle, the term 'practical philosophy' (πρακτικὴ φιλοσοφία/ praktikḕ philosophía, Latin philosophia practica) or 'practical science' (πρακτικὴ ἐπιστήμη/ praktikḕ epistḗmē, Latin scientia practica) was used primarily in the context of classifying knowledge; it refers to the ways of knowing characteristic for those scientific and philosophical disciplines that concern 'what can be done' (or 'what can be achieved in action': τὸ πρακτόν/ praktón, Latin agibile). Later on the term was increasingly used as a collective …

Theoria

(2,407 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading) | Volpi, Franco (Vicenza)
(θεωρία; theōría). [German version] [1] Legation from Greek cities to shrines Designation for one of the best-documented forms of pilgrimage [1], whereby the Greek póleis sent official legations to non-local shrines. The official sent on such a mission was called theoros (θεωρός; theōrós). It is assumed that the term comes from the fact that the theōroí 'looked upon' with their own eyes ( horân; on the word's disputed etymology see [1.433f.]) the sacrifices and celebrations in those sanctuaries, or beheld a 'god' ( theós), in contrast to all those who remained at home or consu…

Wisdom

(3,618 words)

Author(s): Volpi, Franco (Vicenza) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(σοφία/ sophía, Latin sapientia). I. Greco-Roman [German version] A. General and philosophical concept The Greek noun σοφία/ sophía (Ionic: σοφίη/ sophíē), derived from the adjective σοφός ( sophós), which has been documented since the 6th cent. BC, generally refers to the superior skill and knowledge that distinguishes the expert and artist from the masses and accounts for the high regard in which he is held. The term sophía is used to describe any practical mastery, such as that of a helmsman, master builder, physician, military commander or statesman (cf. Ho…