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Prothesis Chapel

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] The prothesis is the northern apse of a three-point sanctuary or a niche or table on the wall of the sanctuary. It derives architecturally from the northern pastophorium of Syrian churches. This is where the proskomide takes place. Since Byzantine liturgical commentaries interpret the proskomide as a mystical representation of Christ’s birth and sacrifice on the cross, the Christ-child is often represented on the diskos (in the form of the eucharistic deesis), in later use also Christ in the garden of Gethsemane. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography G. Babič, “Les dis…

Lebedev, Aleksey Petrovič

(183 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1845, Governorate of Moscow – Jul 14, 1908, Moscow), earned his Dr.theol. at the Moscow Spiritual Academy (Moscow: II) in 1879 with a dissertation on “The Ecumenical Councils of the 4th and 5th Centuries.” He was professor of the history of the Early Church at the Academy from 1874 to 1896 and accepted an appointment at the University of Moscow in 1908. Lebedev is one of the most prominent representatives of the Historical School of Russian theology (A. Gorsky). In his patristic …

Russia

(6,682 words)

Author(s): Wasmuth, Jennifer | Grill, Tobias | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. General Russia (Russ. Rossiya) has been known by that name only since the early 18th century (Peter the Great). Previously the name Rus’ had been in common use; the earliest documents used it to designate both the land and its people. The origin of the term Rus’, a feminine singular noun, is disputed; etymologically it most likely derives from Finnish Ruotsi (“Sweden”). The historical and geographical heartland of Russia can be defined as the territory of the upper Dvina, the upper Volga, and the upper and middle Dnieper. The southern step…

Mariology

(2,940 words)

Author(s): Beinert, Wolfgang | Felmy, Karl Christian | Birmelé, André
[German Version] I. History – II. Systematic Theology I. History The term “Mariology,” used to refer to theological interest in the Mother of Jesus Christ (Mary) − and to the systematic subdiscipline of dogmatics that developed out of this interest − first appeared in the title of the work Summa sacrae Mariologiae by Placido Nigido (Palermo 1602, 21623); the variant “Marialogy” was introduced by Vincent Contenson (see below) in 1669. Thereafter, the concept disappeared until the 19th century. The matter itself has, for christological reasons, been t…

Joseph of Volokolamsk, Saint

(151 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Ioann Sanin; 1439/ 1440, Jazvišče – 1515, Volokolamsk), Russian saint. First a monk in the monastery of St. Pafnuty in Borovsk, he founded the monastery in Volokolamsk in 1479. He consistently advocated the cenobitic (Cenobites) principle, with the idea that monastery property should be used for social and cultural activities, among others. Joseph and Nil Sorsky were not involved themselves in the bitter controversy between their followers over this principle. Joseph's emphasis o…

Theodore of Andida

(93 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] is known as the author of a commentary on the liturgy that was probably written by Nicholas, his predecessor as bishop of Andida, prior to 1067 and merely revised by Theodore in the early 12th century. It was the first commentary to interpret the Divine Liturgy (Worship: II, 7) consistently as a representation of Jesus’ life, from his birth to his ascension. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography R. Bornert, Les commentaires byzantins de la divine liturgie du VIIe au XVe siècle, 1966 P. Plank, LThK 3 IX, 2000, 1409.

Church

(19,399 words)

Author(s): Wenz, Gunther | Davis, Derek | Grünschloß, Andreas | Grappe, Christian | Schäfer, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. Early Christianity – IV. Early Church to the Reformation – V. Modern Era – VI. Orthodox Churches – VII. Asia, Africa, Latin America – VIII. Systematic Theology – IX. Ethics – X. Practical Theology – XI. Ecumenical Discussion – XII. Law I. Concept 1. Theology The loan-word, church, which in common parlance can mean both the Christian worship service and the building dedicated to its performance as well as the constituted social configuration of Christian faith in t…

Vigil

(488 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] actually a term coined by Western liturgics for worship during the night preceding major feasts. The frequent mention of nighttime watching and prayer in the New Testament (Matt 14:23; 26:41 par.; Acts 16:25; Col 4:2 etc.) gave rise to corresponding liturgical observances, if in fact they do not themselves reflect such practice. In the Early Church, Tertullian and others attest to the practice of assembling at night for prayer (Tert. Ad uxorem II 4.2). Cyprian of Carthage mentions nighttime prayer (Cyp. Dom. orat. 35). Chapter 41 of the Traditio apostolica spea…

Goar, Jacques

(164 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1601, Paris – Sep 23, 1653, Paris). As prior of the Dominican convent on Chios (1631–1637), in close interaction with the Greeks there, he began the study of Orthodox worship that he continued in Rome through contact with L. Allatius. The Euchologion (Liturgical books) he published in 1647 relied on the textus receptus published in Venice in 1638, which Goar supplemented with excerpts from older manuscripts (including the oldest Euchologion text in the Greek ¶ codex Barberini 336, 8th cent.) and from the liturgy commentaries of important Byzantine theolo…

Canon

(4,367 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Schindler, Alfred | Huizing, Klaas | Troianos, Spyros N. | Felmy, Karl Christian | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Orthodox Law – V. Eastern Poetry – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Taoism I. History of Religion The canon can be defined as a complex process of selection of documents regarded as authoritative; from the totality of the extant written tradition, documents are set apart according to certain criteria as holy or inspired (Inspiration/Theopneustia). Although the concept of the canon as a normative collection…

Synergism

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Dogmatics In general, the term synergy denotes theological conceptions that consider spiritual or ethical cooperation of the human will with divine grace a causal factor in human salvation (Pelagius/Pelagians/Semi-Pelagians). The Reformers followed Augustine of Hippo in rejecting synergism, seeing justification based solely on God’s free grace ( sola gratia) as the only foundation of salvation. Despite the 1999 Joint Declarationon the Doctrine of Justification by the Vatican and the Lutheran World Federation, it remains debatable whether an…

Preaching

(12,278 words)

Author(s): Nicol, Martin | Beutel, Albrecht | Fuchs, Ottmar | Felmy, Karl Christian | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[German Version] I. General Preaching (from Lat. praedicare, “proclaim publicly”) is spiritual or religious speech, in contrast, for example, to forensic speech, political speech, or celebratory speech. Its setting is the worship of the community (Ministerial offices), church activities such as evangelism, devotions (Devotion [Attitude]), and ordinations (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication), and – in various forms – the media (see IV below). ¶ Communication in preaching, reduced to its basic elements, can be represented as a triangle of the preacher, th…

Divinization,

(400 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] also termed “deification” (Gk θέωσις/ théōsis) is a concept that goes back to ancient Platonic and Neoplatonic philosophy, and was adopted early in orthodox theology on the basis of Pauline (2 Cor 5:17; Gal 2:20; 3:26f.) and Johannine (John 14:23; 17:21) affirmations, and especially on the basis of 2 Pet 1:4. Divinization occupies a central place in the orthodox doctrine of redemption. It is founded on the Christ event, for in Christ, human nature is divinized by its union with the divine nature (Dam. Fid. IV 9). For this reason, the doctr…

Dmitrevsky, Ivan Ivanovich

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1754, Michailov – Apr 2, 1829, Rjazan'), Russian lay theologian, teacher of Hebrew and Greek, and, finally, lecturer with the rank of collegiate assessor. His most important work is the first Russian commentary on the divine liturgy (VI) on a historical-critical basis (still current at the end of the 20th cent.) with a marked, Catholic emphasis on the sacrificial character of the liturgy and a rich, always well-documented use of Western literature. The author revised the commentary a number of times, and it continues to be reprinted. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliog…

Golubchov, Aleksandr

(96 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1860, Ilinsky Pogost, Russia – Jul 4, 1911, Sergiyev Posad, Russia). Golubchov was appointed lecturer at the Moscow Theological Academy in 1887; in 1893 he became professor of Christian archaeology and liturgics. Unlike earlier Russian liturgiologists, his historical criticism also bore on the history of doctrine: he noted the diminishing role of the laity in worship (II, 7) and changes in the understanding of the liturgy's sacrificial nature. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography Obituary: Bogoslovskii vestnik, 7–8, 1911, 1–40 K.C. Felmy, Die Deutung der …

Sacraments

(10,176 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Nocke, Franz-Josef | Felmy, Karl Christian | Kandler, Karl-Hermann | Busch, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Church History In Christian usage, the term sacrament has two meanings: a broad meaning corresponding to the New Testament term μυστήριον/ mystḗrion (“mystery”), used as a term for mysteries of the faith in general, and a narrower meaning in the sense of certain liturgical actions that enable believers to share in the salvific grace effected by Christ. While medieval Scholastic theology in the West developed the narrower understanding of sacraments with increasingly precise and subtle definitions, …

Gorsky, Aleksandr Vasilyevich

(155 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Aug 16, 1812 Kostroma, Russia – Oct 11, 1875 Sergiyev Posa, Russia). In 1832 he became professor, in 1862 – without having taken monastic vows, as was usual at the time – rector of the Moscow Spiritual Academy, which under him blossomed and achieved highest rank among the Russian academies. Gorsky was the most important initiator of the historical school of Russian theology, which largely on the basis of his work adopted the critical methods of Western theology. His importance as…

Descent into Hell

(2,415 words)

Author(s): Böcher, Otto | Sparn, Walter | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Dogma and the History of Dogma – III. Art History I. New Testament Christ's descent into hell, i.e. his descent to the underworld, the realm of the dead, is, as Descensus ad inferos, one of the christological statements of the early and medieval church's confession of faith (Apostles' Creed, Athanasian Creed; Confession (of faith): III). Nonetheless, the NT does not offer a single certain text for this notion; at most, 1 Pet 4:6 may be interpreted as preaching by Jesus to the dead, before his resurrection (cf. Ign. Magn. 9.2; Gos. Pet. 10.41f.; Iren. H…

Burial

(5,942 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Hermann | Wenning, Robert | Kuhnen, Hans-Peter | Hachlili, Rachel | Köpf, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Archaeology – III. Old Testament – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. Missiology – VII. Funerary Art I. Religious Studies A burial manifests and represents the culture-bound nature of personality and religious traditions that shape community; consequently, it is also a key to the metaphysics of cultural and civil religion. The history of research in religious studies is associated on many levels with the problem of burial. Studies examine agreements and differences …

Office

(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…
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