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(1,774 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The importance of the insight that the concept of relationality represents an essential factor in understanding reality (along with its origins and purpose) has only recently been fully recognized, although intellectual history may be seen as a quest for this insight. This is illustrated by the fact that Western philosophy can be divided into a Heraclitean type (Heraclitus), which emphasizes the priority of the Many, and a Parmenidian type (Parmenides, Being)…


(133 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] in religions – that which lies before ( pro) the temple ( fanum) – is the opposite of sacredness. It refers to places and times that, in contrast to sacred places, are not distinguished by the presence of the divine. In Christianity the difference between sacred and profane is transcended, for the whole of creat…

Immanent/Economic Trinity

(512 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] Economic Trinity refers to the relationship of the triune God to the world in salvation history with respect to creation, atonement, and perfection, as already formulated by Irenaeus of Lyon and Tertullian. Immanent Trinity designates the mutual relationship of the three consubstantial hypostases or persons (IV): Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; it is initially described, for instance in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, as the relationship established by the birth (…

Praedicatio identica

(359 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] For Luther the problem of praedicatio identica was a central issue in understanding the Eucharist (III, 1.a). A praedicatio identica de diversis naturis would mean that two different essential predicates not linked by implication (Logic), such as “bread” and “body of Christ,” would be predicated of the same thing, so that both would be the same and there would be an identity of bread and body. This praedicatio identica appears to be suggested by the words “This is my body” accompanying the display of the bread, but that would be incorrect. On the one hand, the word this, as i…


(473 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] (also called generationism) in the broad sense is the doctrine that not only the body but also the soul of a particular individual is created through the procreation of his or her parents. It includes dimanatistic traducianism, in which the soul of the begetting father is the efficient cause generating the soul of the begotten c…


(333 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] Fiducia, or trust, is the basic Protestant designation referring to justifying faith. Luther generally speaks of faith that seizes Christ ( fides apprehensiva Christi, WA 39, 1. 45) but also makes references to fiducia, here understood as the substance of the human heart, as trust in the God who promises us compassion (WA 59, 722). This designation of faith as trust in the promised mercy for Christ's sake is found everywhere in Melanchthon's writings (CR 21, 422), who emphasizes that fiducia as oriented toward the capacity of volition ( notitia) implies historical con…


(494 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] Tritheism, a polemical term used like polytheism (Monotheism and polytheism) to stigmatize certain historical doctrines of the Trinity (Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity), which cannot be categorized under a single heading. At the third Council of Byzantium in 680/681 (Constantinople: IV, 3), for example, the charge was lodged against John Philoponus, who interpreted the relationship between person and substance on the Neoplatonic and Aristotelian model of form and matter. In the Middle Ages, Roscelin (Ro…


(90 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus


(4,125 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Theology I. Philosophy 1. Formal logic While signs are determined within the context of a signifying act (semiosis…

Fides historica

(264 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] In medieval theology, “fides” is an overriding term under which various phenomena to which different degrees of salvific relevance are attributed are delimited by means of various distinctions. For example, the Summa Halensis (Alexander of Hales) makes a double distinction, distinguishing between, on the one hand, faith acquired through hearing scripture or through reason ( fides acquisita) and, on the other, infused faith ( fides infusa). The latt…

Fides implicita

(358 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] The expression “implicit faith” is used in a twofold fashion. (a) That which is implicit can be capable of explication. Theology, for example, is the scholarly explication of what are largely the implicit presuppositions of the worldview of the Christian understanding of reality as embedded in differing life contexts. The early Protestant distinction between, on the one hand, the articuli fidei fundamentales that are directly necessary for salvation and, on the other,


(393 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] The term universals refers to general concepts (see also General/Particular) or predicates. They can be defined purely formally by saying that they are su…

Mediation Theology

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Dogmatics I. Church History The 1828 programmatic announcement of the journal Theologische Studien und Kritiken ( ThStKr) in 1828 by G. Lücke in cooperation with K. Ullmann, F.W.K. Umbreit, J.K.L. Gieseler, and K.I. Nitzsch used the term Vermittlung, “mediation.” The theologico-political controversies of the Vormärz period coined mediation theology as a polemical term to attack this school of theology, which followed in the footsteps of F.D.E. Schleiermacher but clearly went back to Melanchthon. The linkage…


(1,179 words)

Author(s): Görman, Ulf | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences – II. Philosophy of Religion …


(2,325 words)

Author(s): Schubert, Anselm | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Church History 1. General. The term Neo-Lutheranism refers to the 19th-century theological and ecclesiological movement that sought to turn its back on the Enlightenment and rationalism and to renew Lutheranism (Lutherans) on the basis of strict fidelity to Scripture and the Lutheran confessions. Although the term, coined (as Ger. Neuluthertum) by K. Schwarz ( Zur Geschichte der neuesten Theologie, 1856, 353), was intended to emphasize the difference between a Neo-Lutheranism and old Lutheranism ( Altluthertum), it soon came to designate those who wan…

Value Judgment

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy A value judgment is a judgment by which something is assessed as valuable or valueless. In contrast to the judgment of fact, which constitutes a descriptive statement of facts with a claim to scientifically verifiable objectivity, the value judgment in the sense of a normative (prescriptive) assessment constitutes the act of recognizing or revocating a validity, mostly in practical respects (also indirectly). Where it is not directly meant to guide actions, it contains…


(1,014 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion and Fundamental Theology I. Philosophy A statement that is simply incredible is described in philosophy and logic as a paradox, if, in spite of its “unbelievability,” it seems nevertheless to be correctly deduced from acceptable premises. An example of this kind is the Socratic paradox stating that action against better knowledge is impossible (cf. Plato Prot. 351b–358e). From the prima facie plausible pragmatic theory assumption: (1) “People always freely do what seems best (for them),” the statement se…


(2,621 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N. | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament and Early Christianity – III. Systematic Theology I. Religious Studies In religious studies, the concept of “charisma” refers especially to religious phenomena which exhibit characteristics such as originality, immediacy, spontaneity, and dynamics, and which stand in sharp contrast or even in outright opposition to the ordinary. From an ideal-typological perspective, these phenomena thus entail a potential disruption of tradit…


(1,766 words)

Author(s): Görman, Ulf | Waschkies, Hans-Joachim | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences – II. Philosophy – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Ethics I. Natural Sciences In the natural sciences, the term paradigm (from Gk παράδειγμα/ parádeigma, “pattern, model”) is commonly used to refer to exemplary models for scientific work. A particular way of setting up an experiment or a simulation, or a strategy for giving evidence for a conclusion, can be described as a paradigm. On a more general level, influential basic theories or scientific works introducing such theories (e.g. Jo…
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