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Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Tisicrates

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεισικράτης; Teisikrátēs). Bronze sculptor from Sicyon in the early 3rd cent. BC. There is literary evidence of portrait statues of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes, Peucestas [2] and an otherwise unknown Senex Thebanus ('elderly Theban man') and inscriptional evidence of others in Thebes, Eretria [1] and Oropus as well as a mythological group. T. and Piston created a chariot and pair (Plin. HN 34,89). None of his works survives; attempts to identify his Demetrius in copies are questionable. T.'s teacher was Euthycr…

Vulca

(132 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Etruscan terracotta sculptor from Veii. According to Plin. HN 35,157, V. made the clay cult image of Iuppiter Capitolinus in Rome commissioned by Tarquinius [11] Priscus (first half of the 6th cent. BC) for a temple which was not, however, dedicated until 509 BC. Ascribing to V. the rest of the building sculpture of this temple and that of the temple of Veii is hypothetical. A Hercules fictilis by V. in Rome (Plin. HN loc.cit.) is not more closely defined and is not identical with a statuette mentioned in Mart. 14,178. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography M. Pallottino …

Smilis

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σμῖλις/ Smîlis). Son of Euclides, a sculptor from Aegina, probably 6th cent. BC. Pausanias (5,17,1) saw S.' enthroned Horae in the temple of Hera at Olympia and gives an account of his cult image of Hera in Samos (7,4,4). A late source (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) ascribes to S. a cult image of Hera in Argos. Ancient tradition places him among the mythical artists of the period of Daedalus [1]; Plin. HN 36,90 ascribes architectural marvels to him. His name can be derived from  σμίλη ( smílē, ‘chisel’). Speculation on S.' technical inventions …

Eumares

(128 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐμάρης; Eumárēs). Painter in Athens. He was considered to be the inventor of the distinction between male and female figures, probably by means of the skin colour, and of a new flexibility of the bodies. If he can be correctly associated with this stage of development achieved around 600 BC, he cannot be equated with the bearer of this common artist's name who appears as the father in a signature of  Antenor and his brother and who himself placed his signature on a work on a base of the Acropolis around 520 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 295 Overbeck…

Theocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεοκλῆς; Theoklês). Son of Hegylus, sculptor from Sparta. T. was a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and thus was active in the mid-6th cent. BC. A representation in cedar wood of 'Heracles with the Hesperids' in the treasury of Epidamnus in Olympia were by him and his son; at the time of Pausanias the Hesperids were in the Temple of Hera (Paus. 6,19,8). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 328 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  H. Marwitz, Hegylos?, in: AA 1969, 106 f.  Fuchs/Floren, 215.

Archermus

(139 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios like his sons  Boupalus and Athenis. His active period falls into the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Pliny (HN 36,11-14) refers to works in Lesbos and Delos where a base with his initials was found. A winged Nike in the archaic kneeling-running ( Knielauf) pose, found nearby, was dated to 560-550 BC and justifiably connected to a note attributed to  Antigonus of Carystus (Sch. Aristoph. Av. 574), stating that A. had been the first to produce a Nike figure with wings. A later signature of A. was found on the Ac…

Pasiteles

(289 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πασιτέλης; Pasitélēs). Sculptor, from Magna Graecia, Roman citizen probably from 89 BC and according to the sources active there at the time of Cn. Pompeius Magnus in the middle of the 1st cent. BC. Of P.'s work nothing has survived apart from one signature on the base of a statue, but his significance in the artistic expression of late Republican Rome seems to have been great, not in the least because of his treatise on opera nobilia (mirabilia) totius orbis ('noble (wonderful) works of the whole world'), which is not preserved. Since P. is mentioned as t…

Archaism [II]

(694 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] II. Archaeology The definition and application of this term, which has been transferred by modern scholars from Hellenistic literary criticism (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = 'to archaize') to the fine arts, are disputed. Archaism exists where works of art from the Classical period and later (from c. 480 BC) intentionally adopt aspects of the Late Archaic period (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC). Such aspects are especially hair and beard styles, garments (zigzag folds) and motifs of gesture (splayed fingers, mo…

Myrmecides

(94 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μυρμηκίδης; Myrmēkídēs). Sculptor in marble and toreutics . His creative period is not known, it probably lay in the 6th cent. BC. Mostly named in conjunction with Callicrates [2], he had a legendary reputation for producing microscopically small works in marble, iron and ivory. There are descriptions of a quadriga small enough to fit under the wings of a fly, a ship the size of a bee and a sesame seed enscripted with Homeric verses. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 293, 2168, 2192-2201  P. Mingazzini, s.v. M., EAA 5, 1963, 313-314.

Damophon

(190 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμοφῶν; Damophôn) Sculptor from Messene. Based on prosopographic and historic evidence, it would seem that he was active from the end of the 3rd cent. BC until 168 BC; most of his divine statues known from written records must have been produced in Arcadia prior to the earthquake in 183 BC. He worked on colossal acroliths and was entrusted with the repair of Phidias' Zeus in  Olympia. Of a group of gods in the Asclepius shrine in Messene, the head and foot of the statues of Apollo…

Leochares

(431 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Λεωχάρης; Leōchárēs). Greek sculptor; his surviving works date from the mid 4th cent. BC to 320 BC; the period of main activity given by Pliny, 372-369 BC, is therefore too early. L.'s reputation rested on idols and portraiture, and led to a corruption of the evidence. Among the literary inventions are a statue of Apollo attributed to the still young L., which Plato is said to have sent to Dionysius II (around 365 BC). In 354 BC at the latest (death of work's commissioner Timotheu…

Busts

(652 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] From the Renaissance, the word bust (from Italian busto) refers to a three-dimensional free-standing human image, which is restricted to head and chest ( Portrait). There is no ancient technical term, because busts were predominantly classified as portraits ( imagines). The term  bustum, on the other hand, meant gravesite, which in Italic cultures was marked by a  cippus or a stele, contouring a human head; in some instances as early as the 6th cent., but more commonly by the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, these developed int…

Strongylion

(176 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Στρογγυλίων/ Strongylíōn). Bronze sculptor (last third of the 5th cent. to the first third of the 4th cent. BC). None of his works attested in literature survives. Parts of the base of a detailed depiction of the Trojan horse, named δούριος ( doúrios, ‘The wooden one’, Paus. 1,23,8), have been identified on the Acropolis in Athens; it can be dated to before 414 BC. As well as some devotional images, S. and Cephisodotus [4] created some statues of the Muses on Mt Helicon. Small bronzes by S. were famous among Roman collectors, such as the so-called Puer Bruti and an Amazon, o…

Frontality

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] The term introduced by J. Lange in 1892 as in the ‘law of frontality’ originally referred to a pre-Greek mode of portrayal, which, developed from the plane, displays all the essential individual forms paratactically in front view. Frontality was a label for an allegedly primitive form, which in evolutionary statements on style also seemed applicable to the early, pre-classical portrayal of people in Greek sculpture. In archaic statues frontality was supposedly expressed by mirror-…

Urn

(621 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Originally a round water container, the Latin urna denotes the sepulchral vessel in a cremation (ashes and bones). Morphologically speaking, urns are not always distinguishable from vessels of everyday life or cult. They sometimes imitated furniture and building designs. The gathered bones and ashen remains were gathered ( ossilegium) for storing in cloth or vessels inside urns of terracotta, metal or stone. Because of the prevalence of cremation in the ancient Mediterranean, the urn was the usual vessel for contain…

Xoanon

(305 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (ξόανον; xóanon). Greek term, attested from the 6th cent. BC, for gods' images (derived from ξεῖν/ xeín, 'to polish') made of wood, ivory and stone, regardless of size or artistic period. The modern archaeological usage, however, often limits the term xoanon to an ancient cult figure made of wood, which goes back to the restricted use of the term by Pausanias, who has handed down most of the information on xoana. The most famous wooden xoana were created in the 8th-7th cents. BC. In ancient literature, their sculptors (Theocles, Angelion) were considered…

Canachus

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάναχος; Kánachos). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Sicyon Sculptor from Sicyon, lived and worked in the late archaic period. Sources describe his style as hard and strict. His most famous work, the bronze statue of Apollo Philesios in Didyma holding a movable deer in one hand, was looted in 494 BC by the Persians. C. created a copy out of cedar wood for the temple of Apollo Ismenios in Thebes. Reliefs and coins depict the statue which was also recognized in Roman reproductions. In Sicyon, C. create…

Naucydes

(242 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ναυκύδης; Naukýdes). Bronze sculptor from Argos, son of Patrocles, teacher of Polyclitus and Alypus. The position of  N. in Polyclitus's family tree is a matter of dispute; two sculptors of the same name are also postulated. Daedalus [2] and Periclytus are recorded as the brothers of N., the latter also as ‘Polyclitus’. Pliny gives N.'s prime as  400-397 BC. N. created several  victor statues (after  448 BC). The most famous was a discobolus (discus thrower), which is commonly identified with the ‘discobolus at rest’ (Rom, VM), dating from c. 400 BC, which survives …

Angelion

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor in archaic times who, together with  Tectaeus, is regarded as a pupil of  Dipoenus and Scyllis. Plutarch describes the wooden cult statue of Apollo on Delos with a discus in his hand on which the three Charites stood; it was produced together with Tectaeus. Later, gold wreaths were added to the Charites by queen Stratonice. The statue is shown on later Athenian coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 179-180 Overbeck, no. 334-337 (sources).
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