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Paesus

(126 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Παισός; Paisós). Town in the Troas (Hom. Il. 2,822; 5,612), probably founded by the Milesians (Str. 13,1,19). P. was linked with the sea via the river of the same name. The position of P. is presumed to be near Fanar, north-east of modern Çardak [1. 99]. The neighbouring cities were Lampsacus and Parium, which like P. were conquered in 497 BC by Daurises, the son-in-law of Darius [1] I (Hdt. 5,117). In the Delian League, P. paid 1,000 drachmas (ATL 3,26, No. 135). At the time of …

Achilleum

(123 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀχίλλειον; Achílleion). Town on the north-western coast of the  Troas near Besik Bay [1. 185 f.; 2. 195], built by  Mytilene in the 6th cent. BC as a base against Athenian-occupied  Sigeum (Hdt. 5,94; Str. 13,1,39); probably one of the Aeolian coastal towns ( Aeolians [1. 180]). In the Hellenistic period, A. was taken by Illium…

Gargara, Gargaris

(240 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάργαρα, Γαργαρίς; Gárgara, Gargarís), town in Aeolis on the 780 m high crest of Koca Kaya, a western extension of the Ida range (Hom. Il. 8,48; 14,292; 14,352 Γάργαρον ἄκρον; Plin. HN 5,122 Gargara mons). Founded by Assus (Str. 13,1,58) and inhabited by Leleges (EM s.v. Γ.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.), G. already existed in the mid-6th cent. BC, as temple finds on the acropolis indicate [1]. G. is mentioned in …

Teucri

(105 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τεῦκροι; Teûkroi). Tribe in the Troas (Hdt. 5,13; 5,122; 7,20; 7,43; Str. 1,3,21; 13,1,48; 13,1,64), possibly the Thraces, who had migrated back to Thrace even before the 'Trojan War'. A few remained in Gergis in the Troas (Hdt. 5,122; 7,43), hence the identification of the T. and the Gergithae. Identified as early as Aesch. Ag. 112 with the Troes, the T. were mentioned from the 5th cent. BC onwards only in mythological, not in historical contexts, and continued living in the legend around Teucrus [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 5…

Simoeis

(58 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σιμόεις; Simóeis). Tributary of the Scamander in the Troad, modern River Dümrek. The plain formed by this river was where the battles for Troy took place (cf. Hom. Il. 4,475). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 158-164, 173-177  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, s. v. S.  J. V. Luce, Die Landschaften Homers, 1999, s. v. S.

Pitane

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Pergamum | Aegean Koine (Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). Town with two ports in Mysian Aeolis (…

Astyra

(229 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄστυρα; Ástyra). [German version] [1] Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad (Scyl. 98), a member of the  Delian League. After that, the importance of the settlement declined (Str. 13,1,65). However, A. is still mentioned in the customs tables of Ephesus [2. 63]. The sanctuary of  Artemis Astyra in A. was subordinate to the nearby Antandrus (Str. ibid.; Xen. Hell. 4,1,41). An exact localization of A. has not yet been achieved [1. 267]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973 2 H. Engelmann…

Mysia

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μυσία/ Mýsía). [German version] A. Geography and ethnography…

Lyrnessus

(116 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λυρνεσσός; Lyrnessós

Perperene

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περπερήνη/ Perperḗnē). City in Aeolian Mysia, probably on the road from Adramyttion to Pergamum near modern Aşağıbey (localization of [1] confirmed by [2]; plan in [2. vol. 1, 297]). Coin minting attests to the existence of P. from the 4th cent. BC (cf. [2. vol. 2, 308-325]). Thucydides did not, as Steph. Byz. (s.v. Παρπάρων/ Parpárōn) would have it, die in P. but probably in Hellanicus [1] around 400 BC (Suda s.v. Π.). At the time of Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD), P. appears to have belonged to the …

Marpessus

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μάρπεσσος/ Márpessos; Marmessos, Marmi(y)ssos). Town in the Troad, regarded as the home of the Hellespontine Sibyl (Paus. 10,12,3). Its location is derived from Paus. ibid. (‘240 stadia from Alexandria [2] Troas ’) and Lactant. Div. inst. 1,6 (

Rhyndacus

(106 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥύνδακος/ Rhýndakos). River in the Troad, not regarded as a single body today (Koca Çay, Kocasu Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı). It rises in Mysia Abbaïtis and flows through Phrygia (Phryges). It formed the frontier between Mysia and Bithynia, form…

Satnioeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σατνιόεις; Satnióeis). River in Troas (Hom. Il. 6,34; 14,445; 21,87), modern Tuzla Çayı, rises on the southwestern slopes of the Ida [2], near Gargara. It was on the S. that Homer's city of Pedasus [3] is supposed to have been (cf. Str. 13,1,50). A…

Scepsis

(119 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Σκῆψις/ Skêpsis, Σκᾶψις/ Skâpsis). Aeolian settlement in the Troad, modern Kurşunlu Tepe, on the upper Scamander, according to Str.  13,1,52 founded by Hector's son Scamandrius. In the 5th cent. BC S. was probably colonised by Milesian settlers. By Antigonus [1] it was incorporated into Alexandria [2] Troas, and by Lysimachus [2] made independent again (Str. 13,1,52). Allegedly the libraries of Theophrastus and Aristoteles…

Cadi

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] …

Cebren

(263 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέβρην; Kébrēn). Town in the Troad, located on two hills, Çal Dağı and the Fuğla Tepesi near Akpınarköyü on the middle reaches of the Scamander. On the opposing bank of the river lay Scepsis with whom C. was in perpetual dispute. C. was the residence of one of Priam's illegitimate sons (Hom. Il. 16,738; Str. 13,1,33). It had been founded by Cyme (Ephor. FGrH 239 F 22); earliest pottery finds point to the 7th cent. BC [1. 333]. Cook, however, assumes a foundation from Mytilene [1. 337]. Previously a member of the  Delian League, C. found itself in around 400 BC under the rule of the female Persian hyparchos  Mania. In 399 BC, C. was captured by the Spartan Dercylidas (Xen. Hell. 3,1,17-20). In 360/359 BC, the Athenian strategos Charidemos occupied the town; however, he soon had to give way again to Persian pressure (Dem. Or. 23,154). Between 310 and 306 BC,  Antigonus [1] brought about a synoikismós, joining C. with Alexandria Troas. The continued existence of the settlement is questionable, even though the town was named in the 3rd cent. BC on an honorary decree from Assos (IK, Assos no. 4). Robert [2] even assumes a further

Cana

(94 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάνη, Κάναι; Kánē, Kánai). Frequently mentioned foothills (ἀκρωτήριον, Hdt. 7,42,3; Diod. Sic. 4,53,2; 13,97,4,1; Str. 10,1,5; 13,1,68; Καινὴ ἄκρα, Ptol. 5,2,6,1) with a settlement and a harbour in north-western Aeolis, at the southern end of the bay of Adramytteum, near the modern Kara Dağ. A decree from Demetrias [1] bestows honours on three citizens of C. (IG IX 2, 1105 I).…

Lecton

(105 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λεκτόν, Λεκτός; Lektón, Lektós, Cape Lecton). Western foothills of the Trojan Ida, stretching to the Aegean sea (Hom. Il. 14,283; Hdt. 9,114; Thuc. 8,101; mainly Str. in book 13). The sources merely indicate that Cape L. or a town L. was situated near modern Babakale; no further details can be determined. Close by there was an archaeologically unverifiable altar for the Twelve (Olympian) Gods (Str. 13,1,48), which was erected by Agamemnon according to the legend.…

Aesepus

(98 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Αἴσηπος; Aísēpos). River in  Mysia, modern Gönen Çay, rising at Mount Cotylus in the  Ida mountains (Str. 13,1,43). It is already mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,825; 4,91; 12; 21). In its course to the north-east, it takes in the Caresus. After 500 stades, it flows into the  Propontis near the island of Halone (mode…
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