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Inauguratio

(234 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] In the actual sense ‘the beginning’, cf. also inaugurare: ‘employ auguries’, ‘question divinatory birds’; ‘consecrate’. In Roman religious law, inauguratio is the priestly inauguration into office that has been applied from historically tangible time only for the   flamines maiores ( Dialis: Gai. Inst. 1,130; 3,114; Liv. 27,8,4; 41,28,7; Martialis: Liv. 29,38,6; 45,15,10; Macrob. Sat. 3,13,11), the   rex sacrorum (Labeo at Gell. NA 15,27,1; Liv. 40,42,8) and the   augures (Liv. 27,36,5; 30,26,10; 33,44,3; Cic. Brut. 1; Suet. Calig…

Equus October

(262 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] ( October equus). A chariot race was held every year on the Ides of October on the  Campus Martius in Rome (Fest. 190 L.; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 97), and the right-hand horse of the victorious team (but cf. [2]) killed. The horse's head was (previously?) wrapped in bread ( panibus) or ─ if we follow the conjecture in [5] ─ with cloths ( pannibus). After the animal had been killed with spears, the inhabitants of the Roman quarters of Via Sacra and Subura fought for the head, which was then either carried to the  Regia (Via Sacra) or hung from the turris Mamilia (Subura), while the tail…

Licium

(351 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (literally ‘thread’, ‘string’, ‘ribbon’). In Roman cultic and magical use, the functions of the licium are twofold: it connects or binds, and it encircles or closes something or someone. In its connecting or binding function it is used primarily in love spells (cf. Verg. Ecl. 8,73ff.). The licium also serves to enclose the voting area at convocations of the people (Varro, Ling. 6,86-88, 93 and 95; Paul Fest. 100,11 L.). However, it is more common or more important in its encircling or closing function, in which it has an apotr…

Sellisternium

(137 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] Comparable with the Roman banquet of the gods called the lectisternium. According to ancient table manners (men reclined on beds, women sat), at the sellisternium statuettes of the goddesses were placed on sellae (chairs, stools) and a meal was offered to them. Sellisternia are particularly transmitted as a component of the ludi saeculares (CIL VI 32323; 32329). Likewise they could be performed after ominous portents. Coins struck under Titus and Domitian refer to a sellisternium linked to a lectisternium on the occasion of an epidemic, a fire in Rome, as w…

Supplicatio

(311 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] ('Ceremony of supplication'or 'propitiation' or 'thanksgiving'). In Roman religion, supplicatio denoted in the wider sense an offering of wine and incense ( ture ac vino supplicare), and in the narrower sense a ceremony of the commonwealth arranged by the authorities. Such supplicationes were recommended in emergencies by the quindecimviri sacris faciundis upon consulting the Sibyllini libri , and by the pontifices or the haruspices , and were approved by the Senate. There was a distinction between supplicationes of supplication and expiation on the one ha…

Tubilustrium

(126 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] Roman civic festival of the 'cleaning of the trumpets' ( tubi or tubae), which was celebrated on 23 March and 23 May. The March date was considered as feriae (holiday) for Mars (InscrIt 13,2,104; 123), the May date as feriae for Volcanus (InscrIt 13,2, 57 and 187). The doubling of the tubilustrium in May is still unclear (but see [1. 219-221]). During these days, the trumpets were cleaned in the Atrium Sutorium and then used for cultic activities ( sacra: Varro, Ling. 6,14; cf. InscrIt 13,2, 123; Fest. 480 et passim) -- according to modern interpretation for summoning…

Suovetaurilia

(272 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] also Suovitaurilia. The combination, traditional in Roman religion, of three sacrificial animals - pig ( sus), sheep ( ovis) and bull ( taurus) - that were led, as part of ritual purification (Lustratio), round a place (e.g. a piece of land: Cato Agr. 141; [1. 103-125]) or group of people to be lustrated, and subsequently sacrificed. A distinction was made between suovetaurilia lactentia or minora (piglet, lamb and calf: Cato Agr. 141) and adult suovetaurilia maiora (e.g. boar, ram, bull: Varro Rust. 2,1,10; cf. Plin. HN 8,206). The suovetaurilia seem originally to …

Sacellum

(117 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (“small sanctuary”). Diminutive form of the Latin sacrum. Distinct from it was the sacrarium, the storage room for the sacred gear ( sacra supellex), which did not necessarily have to be consecrated (Consecratio). Sacellum could describe public Roman cult sites consisting of an open altar with an enclosure (Trebatius in Gell. NA 7,12,5; cf. Fest. 422 L.), as well as private sanctuaries. It had the form of a chapel, with the divine image standing in a niche ( aedicula ) in front of which the offering was made (cf. Paul. Fest. 319 L.). In everyday speech, sacellum also referred…

Fictores

(118 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (‘moulders of sacrificial cakes’, bakers). They assisted the   pontifices ( fictores pontificum: CIL VI 1074; 10247) and the Vestals ( fictores virginum Vestalium: CIL VI 786; 2134; Varro, Ling. 7,44, Cic. Dom. 139), their office, according to Ennius (Ann. 115), dated back to Numa. The fictores baked the sacrificial cakes ( liba) ─ a task which they may have taken over from the Vestal virgins ─ and sometimes they were also present at the sacrifices themselves. Cf. strufertarii (Fest. 85 L.), who offered   strues and fertum. Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) Bibliography M. I…

Os resectum

(142 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] ('cut-off bone'). Object of a Roman ritual practised after the change from burial to cremation. According to the Roman ius pontificum, going back to Numa Pompilius, which in fact forbade cremation (Plut. Numa 22), a corpse was lawfully buried only when at least one complete body-part had been fully interred (Cic. Leg. 2,55; Varro Ling. 5,23; Paul. Fest. 135 L.). The idea behind this is that a burial is a return of the body to the earth. A finger would be separated from the body to be cremated, and in…

Strues

(121 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] Roman sacrificial cake (Fest. 408), always mentioned in conjunction with fertum; these two kinds of sacred pastries are not identical, but in their context are hard to distinguish. Only Cato (Agr. 134 and 141) differentiates: strues for Ianus, fertum for Iuppiter. The Flamen Dialis had to have boxes with these two cakes constantly hanging on the bedposts (Gell. NA 10,15,14). Strues were used in sacrifice to expiate lightning-struck trees by means of  so-called strufertarii (Paul. Fest. 75; 377); as a preliminary sacrifice at animal sacrifices; at a lustratio pagi bet…

Infula

(236 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (Woollen) band with various uses. Together with garlands, the infulae are the most commonly used items of decoration in Roman worship: on sacrificial animals, sacred buildings, sometimes also altars (Fest. 100 L.). They are also used to decorate houses on the occasion of a wedding (Luc. 2,355; Plin. HN 29,30; Serv. Aen. 4,458). As a component of priestly vestments (head band [1]), the infula is a diadem-like band from the ends of which tassels ( vittae) hang down on both sides, sometimes of red and white threads, sometimes subdivided into individual segments ( astragalos

Victimarius

(270 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (older victumarius). 'Sacrificial servant' in the Roman state cult, according to social class a slave or freedman (for the area of the city of Rome cf. CIL VI 2201; 9087; 9088; 33781), derived from Lat. victima, 'sacrificial animal' (CIL XII 533). There is a distinction to be made between the victimarii and the popae (who stunned the animals by striking them with a hammer). The cultrarius [1. 2483] (= 'cutler': CIL X1 3984; [2. Nr. 137; 3. 79]) is not a sacrificial servant; this term has been attested only once in literature in its use as 'sacrificial servant' with the culter

Vitulatio

(112 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] The Vitulatio is described in the Roman calendar as the day of joy (Latin vitulari in ancient Roman poets means 'express joy') and bears a no longer clearly explicable relationship to a festival which had to do with military activities. It was celebrated on 6 July and not, as formerly assumed, on 8/9 July [1; 2. 572]. On that day there were celebrations in honour of the goddess Vitula (Macrob. Sat. 3,2,11-15), the personification of Joy and Victory (Personification), with sacrifices (to Jupiter?) and games. The Vitulatio is probably connected with the Poplifugia…

Fictores

(115 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[English version] (“Opferkuchenformer”, Bäcker). Hilfspersonal der pontifices ( f. pontificum: CIL VI 1074; 10247) und Vestalinnen ( f. virginum Vestalium: CIL VI 786; 2134; Varro ling. 7,44, Cic. dom. 139), dessen Einrichtung von Ennius (ann. 115) auf Numa zurückgeführt wird. Die f. stellten das für das Opfer benötigte frische Gebäck ( liba) her - eine Aufgabe, die sie wohl von den Vestalinnen übernommen hatten - und waren z.T. bei den Opfern selbst anwesend. Vgl. strufertarii (Fest. 85 L.), die strues und fertum darbrachten. Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) Bibliography M. Ihm, s.v.…

Sacellum

(103 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[English version] (“kleines Heiligtum”). Diminutiv zu lat. sacrum. Hiervon zu unterscheiden ist das sacrarium, der Aufbewahrungsraum für den sakralen Hausrat ( sacra supellex), das nicht unbedingt konsekriert sein mußte ( consecratio ). S. kann öffentliche röm. Kultstätten, die aus einem offenen Altar mit einer Einfriedung bestanden (Trebatius bei Gell. 7,12,5; vgl. Fest. 422 L.), aber auch private Heiligtümer bezeichnen. Es hat die Form einer Kapelle, das Götterbild stand in einer Nische ( aedicula ), der Opfernde davor (vgl. Paul. Fest. 319 L.). …

Lituus

(152 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Stab aus Holz oder Metall als Amtsinsignie Gekrümmter oder spiralförmig endender Stab aus Holz oder Metall, etr.-ital. Herkunft. Im polit. Sinne urspr. Amtsinsigne des Königs (Serv. Aen. 7,187), später Symbol imperatorischer Macht, Wahrzeichen des Princeps. Von größerer Bed. ist l. als Kultgerät und Insigne der Auguren ( augures ), die ihn zur Bezeichnung der Himmelsregionen bzw. des templum verwenden. Mythologisch ist l. mit der Gründung Roms verbunden, da Romulus bei der Stadtgründung mit diesem die einzelnen Regionen festlegt (Cic. d…

Os resectum

(134 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[English version] (der “abgeschnittene Knochen”). Gegenstand eines röm. Rituals, das nach dem Wechsel von der Erd- zur Brandbestattung ausgeübt wurde. Nach dem auf Numa Pompilius zurückgeführten röm. ius pontificum, das die Brandbestattung eigentlich untersagte (Plut. Numa 22), galt ein Toter erst dann als ordnungsgemäß bestattet, wenn wenigstens ein vollständiges Körperteil gänzlich beigesetzt worden war (Cic. leg. 2,55; Varro ling. 5,23; Paul. Fest. 135 L.). Hintergrund ist die Idee, daß die Bestattung als Rückgabe des L…

Immolatio

(838 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[English version] ist die lat. Bezeichnung für den Vorgang des Opferns, die Opferhandlung, im Gegensatz zu der Opfergabe (Früchte, Brot, Wein) oder dem Opfertier ( hostia). Das Opfer war eines der einfachsten Arten, sich im röm. Privat- wie Staatskult gegenüber einer Gottheit zu äußern. Der lat. Ausdruck i. umschreibt diesen Vorgang; urspr. Bed.: das Bestreuen des Opfertieres mit gesalzenem Spelt, dem Opferdinkel ( immolare = mit Opfermehl, mola salsa, bestreuen; vgl. Fest. 124 L.; Fest. 97 L. s.v. immolare; Serv. Aen. 10,541). I. bezeichnet somit den Akt der Reinigung vor de…

Infula

(224 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[English version] (Woll-)Binde mit vielseitiger Verwendung. Neben Girlanden ist die i. das am häufigsten verwendete Schmuckutensil im röm. sakralen Bereich: an Opfertieren, sakralen Gebäuden, teilweise auch Altären (Fest. 100 L.); sie ist auch Schmuck des Hochzeitshauses (Lucan. 2,355; Plin. nat. 29,30; Serv. Aen. 4,458). Als Bestandteil der Priestertracht (Kopfbinde [1]) ist die i. eine diademartige Binde, von der beiderseits der Enden Quasten ( vittae) herabhängen, teilweise zweifarbig aus roten und weißen Fäden gedreht, teilweise in einzelne Segmente (so…
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