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Induction

(257 words)

Author(s): Wohlrapp, Harald
[German Version] Induction refers to the inference of a universal statement concerning an entire subject area on the basis of single statements concerning individual objects. The justification for an inference of this type, i.e. the problem of induction, has been a central issue in the epistemological tradition (Epistemology) ever since Aristotle. The validity of a principle of “complete induction” is considered proven in formal disciplines ¶ (logic, mathematics) with self-constituted subject areas. However, it has been clear since D. Hume's critique of the co…

Argument

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Wohlrapp, Harald | Grube, Dirk-Martin
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology I. Philosophy After roughly two and a half thousand years of the varied history of argumentative speech (Wohlrapp, Introduction), the concept of argumentation has acquired new relevance for philosophy and science in the last 40 years. Currently, the concept of argumentative reasoning is in the process of superseding or reinterpreting the concept of truth (esp. in the normative sense). An argument is a preserved specimen of human speech suited for demon…