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دار الضرب

(4,682 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A. S. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
[English edition] كانت دار الضّرب مؤسّسة لا غنى عنها في حياة المجتمع في الشّرق الأوسط من العصور الوسطى بسبب ما يتّسم به نظام النّقد في الدّورة الاقتصاديّة من تطوّر بلغ الغاية، وبصفة خاصّة خلال القرون الأولى من السّيطرة الإسلاميّة. وكانت المهمّة الرّئيسيّة لدار الضّرب توفيرَ النّقود لتلبية احتياجات الحكومة وعموم النّاس. وكانت دور الضّرب في أزمنة الإصلاحات النّقدية تستخدَم كذلك مكاناً يمكن أن تستبدَل فيه النّقود الملغاة بالنّقود الجديدة. وقد ساعدت الكمّيات الكبيرة من المعادن الثّمينة التي تخزّن في دور الضّرب، هذه الدُّورَ على أن تؤدّي دور بيوت مال إضافيّة. وقد استخدم العرب مباشرة بعد ف…

ضريبة

(15,790 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J. F. P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
[English edition] 1. المشرق الضريبة هي إحدى الكلمات الأكثر استخداما للدّلالة على الجباية عموماً، وتنطبق على وجه الخصوص على فئة الضرائب بأكملها التي تضاف إلى الضرائب الأساسيّة الشرعيّة. وقد تمّت دراسة هذه الأخيرة (الزكاة والعشر والجزية والخراج...) وما أثمرته خلال الفترة «الكلاسيكيّة» في مادّة سابقة بعنوان «بيت المال». سيقع تقديم وصف مفصّل لأساليب تقدير القيمة والجباية، كلّ تحت عنوانه الخاصّ به، وبصفة خاصّة ما تعلّق بالخراج. وسيتمّ في خطّ مواز إدراج الضرائب والدفعات المرتبطة بها أو المفروضة على أصناف …

Či̇ftli̇k

(1,322 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
is the ordinary word for farm in Turkish, but in the Ottoman times it designated, at first, a certain unit of agricultural land in the land-holding system, and then, later on, a large estate. It was formed from čift (pair, especially a pair of oxen) from the Persian d̲j̲uft with the Turkish suffix, lik . Originally, a čiftlik was thought of as the amount of land that could be ploughed by two oxen. Čift and čiftlik were used synonymously. In the Slav areas of the Ottoman empire the term bas̲h̲tina was often substituted for čiftlik. In the Ottoman land-holding system during the period in which the tīm…

Ispend̲j̲e

(350 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman name of an ʿörfī ( ʿurfī ) tax levied on adult non-Muslim subjects, and amounting usually to 25 aḳčas a year. Neither of the expianations advanced for its etymology ( pend̲j̲ik [ q.v.], Hammer-Purgstall, Staatsverfassung , i, 213; spenza : C. Truhelka, in THIM, i, 63) is convincing; in texts of the first half of the 9th/15th century ( e.g. H. İnalcık (ed.), Sûret-i Defter-i Sancak-i Arvanid , Ankara 1954, p. 130) it is spelied ispenĉe . The oldest reference to this tax belong to the reign of Bāyezīd I ( Arvanid , p. 103). According to this register (of 835…

Māʾ

(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…

Gönüllü

(782 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Turkish word meaning ‘volunteer’, in the Ottoman Empire used as a term (sometimes with the pseudo-Persian plural gönüllüyān , in Arabic sources usually rendered d̲j̲amulyān or kamulyān ) for three related institutions: 1. From the earliest times of the Ottoman state, volunteers coming to take part in the fighting were known as gönüllü ; their connexion with the mutaṭawwi-ʿa , g̲h̲āzīs [ qq.v.], of earlier Muslim states is evident (see M. F. Köprülü, Les origines de l’ Empire Ottoman , Paris 1936, 102-3; İ. H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtına medhal , Is…

Ḏj̲ebeli

(408 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also d̲j̲ebelü , in the Ottoman empire an auxiliary soldier equipped by those to whom the state assigned a source of income such as tīmār , čiftlik , waḳf etc. The word d̲j̲ebeli is made by adding the suffix - li or - to the word d̲j̲ebe, arms (cf. Mogollarin gizli tarihi , tr. A. Ternir, Ankara 1948, 75; in the Ottoman army the d̲j̲ebed̲j̲i-bas̲h̲i̊ was the superintendent of the arms store at the Porte, see I. H. Uzunçarşili, Kapi̊kulu ocaklari̊ , ii, Ankara 1944, 3-31). In the 15th century the arms of a d̲j̲ebeli consisted mainly of a lance, bow and arrow, a sword, and a shield (cf. Ḳānūnnāme Sult…

Dawlat Giray

(360 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
(918/1512-985/1577), styled the Taḥt-alg̲h̲an or Dag̲h̲ti̊-alg̲h̲an (Conqueror of the ¶ Capital), K̲h̲ān of the Crimea from 958/1551 to 985/1577. He was the son of Mubārek Giray, and was appointed ḳalg̲h̲ay , first heir to the throne, by Saʿādet Giray K̲h̲ān in 938/1532. When he was made K̲h̲ān in 958/1551 with the firm support of the Ottomans, the latter increased their influence in the Crimea. He vigorously continued the anti-Russian policy of his predecessor, and made an alliance with the Jagellons a…

Istanbul

(26,864 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 20 Ḏj̲umādā I 857/29 May 1453 to 3 Rabīʿ II 1342/13 October 1923. In strict Ottoman usage the name is confined to the area bounded by the Golden Horn, the Marmara coast and the Wall of Theodosius, the districts of G̲h̲alaṭa, Üsküdār and Eyyūb being separate townships, each with its own ḳāḍī ; occasionally however the name is applied to this whole area. NAME. In the period of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultanate of Anatolia (see Kamāl al-Dīn Aḳsarāyī, Musāmarat al- ak̲h̲bār , ed. O. Turan, Ankara 1944, index at p. 344) and under the early Ottomans ( Die altosm. anon. Chroni…

Ḳaplan Girāy I

(676 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Crimean Tatar K̲h̲ān, the third son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Selīm Giray [ q.v.], born on Rhodes in S̲h̲aʿbān 1091/July 1680. In 1108/1697 he became temporary commander of the military forces in Bud̲j̲āḳ [ q.v.] and made a successful raid into Poland. During the negotiations at Carlowicz, he remained in defense of Ferah-Kerman, but Örek-Timur the beg of the rebel S̲h̲irins, forced him to take refuge in Kiliya (Rabīʿ al-Āk̲h̲ir 1111/October 1699). He was afterwards appointed military commander of Chrcassia, where he fought the Kalmuks (…

K̲h̲osrew Pas̲h̲a

(2,557 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil | Repp, R.C.
, Bosniak ( ?-1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Bosnian in origin, K̲h̲osrew was taken into the palace service and rose to the office of silāḥdār . When, in Muḥarram 1033/October-November 1623, the dissident ( zorba ) oda bas̲h̲i̊ s of the Janissaries demanded the replacement of their ag̲h̲a by someone not of the corps, K̲h̲osrew passed out of the enderūn-i humāyūn to become Yeñičeri ag̲h̲asi̊ . The state was at this time going through a critical period: the dominance of the Janissaries in internal affairs had reached new heights with the execution of ʿOt̲h̲m…

Ḳapu Ag̲h̲asi̊

(863 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, ḳapi̊ ag̲h̲asi̊ (or Bāb al-Saʿāde Ag̲h̲asi̊ ), the senior officer in the Ottoman Sultan’s Palace, until the dār al-saʿāde ag̲h̲asi̊ [ q.v.] began to gain ascendancy in the late 10th/16th century. Like the other Palace ag̲h̲as in continuous service, the Sultan himself selected him from the eunuchs. He had the authority to petition the Sultan for the appointment, promotion and transfer of Palace servants, ag̲h̲a s and ič og̲h̲lan s [ qq.v.]. As the sole mediator between the Sultan and the world outside the Palace, he sat at the gate known as the Inner Gate or Bāb al-…

Ḳānūn

(6,513 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y. | Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Ed.
, pl. ḳawānīn , Arabic derivative from Greek κανών, which meant firstly “any straight rod”, later “a measure or rule”, and finally (in the papyri of the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.) “assessment for taxation”, “imperial taxes”, “tariff” (Liddell and Scott, revised ed., London 1940; for its meanings in religious literature, see G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek lexicon , Oxford 1961). The word was adopted into Arabic presumably with the continuation, after the Muslim conquest of Egypt and Syria, of the pre-Islamic tax system (C. H. Becker, Islamstudien , Leipzig 1924, 218-62; F. Løkkegaard, I…

Bulgaria

(2,919 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, a country in the Balkans. It drew its name from the Bulgare, a people of Turkic origin, who first invaded the Dobrud̲j̲a [ q.v.] under Asparuk̲h̲ or Isperik̲h̲ in 679 A.D. and founded an independent state in the Byzantine province of Moesia. Adopting Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium (865) and identifying themselves with the native Slavs who had previously settled Bulgaria, the Bulgare built up a strong empire in the Balkans which extended from the Danube to the Adriatic Sea under Czar Symeon (893-927). The first Islamic accounts of Bulgaria belonged to this period through…

Islām Girāy

(974 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the name of three Ḵh̲āns of the Crimea. Islām Girāy I (938/1532) was the son of Mengli Girāy [ q.v.]. As the leader of the party wishing to follow an independent policy, he embarked on a struggle with his brother, the k̲h̲ān Saʿādet Girāy, the appointée of the Ottoman sultan, enjoying the support of the Crimean tribal aristocracy, who wished to wage unrelenting war on the Russians. With this following, in 933/1527 he ravaged the region of Ryazan and threatened Moscow. In 938/1532, Saʿādet Girāy, assisted by the O…

G̲h̲āzī Girāy I

(146 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ḵh̲ān of the Crimea, reigned for about six months in 930/1523-4. He was proclaimed k̲h̲ān in Muḥarram 930/November 1523 after conspiring with the Crimean begs to rebel against his father Meḥmed Girāy I [ q.v.] and procuring his death. The Ottoman Sultan (Süleymān I) refused to recognize him and, in agreement with Memis̲h̲ Beg of the S̲h̲īrīn, the leader of the begs, appointed as k̲h̲ān G̲h̲āzī Girāy’s uncle Saʿādet Girāy (Ḏj̲umādā II 930/April 1524). G̲h̲āzī Girāy, unable to resist, accepted Memis̲h̲ Beg’s proposal that he should be ḳalg̲h̲ay ([ q.v.] ‘heir-apparent’) to Saʿādet Gi…

Resm

(1,407 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
The Arabic word rasm , in Turkish resm , resim , means in Ottoman usage state practices and organisations as distinguished from those based on Islamic principles and traditions. Specifically, the word indicates taxes and dues introduced by the state called rüsūm-i ʿurfiyye [see ʿurf ] as distinguished from the s̲h̲arʿī taxes which are called ḥuḳūḳ-i̊ s̲h̲erʿiyye . In the Ottoman Empire, resm was sometimes called ḥaḳḳ in the sense of legal right, as in the term ḥaḳḳ-i̊ ḳarār , a fee which asipahī or feudal cavalryman took when vacant mīrī [ q.v.] land was assigned to a peasant. The term resm is …

Ḥaydar-Og̲h̲lu, more correctly Ḳara Ḥaydar-Og̲h̲lu, Meḥmed

(789 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, sometimes given the title of “Beg”. His father, Ḳara Ḥaydar, is mentioned in the sources simply as a brigand; according to Ewliyā Čelebi ( Seyāḥatnāme , iv, 472-3, and cf. Naʿīmā, iv, 240) he took to the mountains in about 1050/1640 and began to plunder caravans in the passes between Eskis̲h̲ehir and Izmir (Smyrna). During the Grand Vizierate of Ḳara Muṣṭafā (and hence before 1052/1643, when the vizier was executed), a nefīr-i ʿāmm against Ḳara Ḥaydar was proclaimed in Anatolia, i.e., the civilian population was impressed in the hunt. He was surrounded near Uluborlu and killed. The first …

Ḍarība

(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…

Eyālet

(2,738 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, from the Arabic iyāla , “management, administration, exercise of power” (cf. Turkish translation of Fīrūzābādī’s Ḳāmūs by ʿĀṣim, Istanbul 1250/1834, iii, 135); in the Ottoman empire the largest administrative division under a beglerbegi [ q.v.], governor-general. In this sense it was officially used after ¶ 1000/1591. The assumption that under Murād III the empire was divided up into eyālets (M. d’Ohsson, Tableau général de l’empire ottoman , vii, 277) must be an error since the term does not occur in the documents of the period. Instead we always find beglerbegilik and wilāyet ( wilāy…

Dār al-ʿAhd

(697 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, “the Land of the Covenant”, was considered as a temporary and often intermediate territory between the Dār al-Islām [ q.v.] and the Dār al-Ḥarb [ q.v.] by some Muslim jurists (see Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Kitāb al-Umm , Cairo 1321, iv, 103-104; Yaḥyā b. Ādam, Kitāb al-K̲h̲arād̲j̲ , trans. A. ben Shemesh, Leiden 1958, 58). Al-Māwardī ( Kitāb al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭāniyya , trans. E. Fagnan, Algiers 1915, 291) states that of the lands which pass into the hands of the Muslims by agreement, that called Dār al-ʿAhd is the one the proprietorship of whi…

Dār al-Ḍarb

(4,784 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
, the mint, was an indispensable institution in the life of mediaeval Middle Eastern society because of the highly developed monetary character of its economy, particularly during the early centuries of Muslim domination. The primary function of the mint was to supply coins for the needs of government and of the general public. At times of monetary reforms the mints served also as a place where obliterated coins could be exchanged for the new issues. The large quantities of precious metals which were stored in the mints helped to make them serve as ancillary treasuries. Soon after their c…

Imtiyāzāt

(19,300 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Lambton, A.K.S. | Baer, G.
, commercial privileges, capitulations. i. The earliest documentary evidence for commercial privileges emanating from Muslim chanceries in the Mediterranean world dates from the 6th/12th century. While it is unlikely that these documents represent the earliest manifestation of that diplomatic and commercial activity between rulers of Islam and Christendom which culminated in the Ottoman Capitulations, it is probably useless to speculate upon either the form or the language of chancery instruments bef…

Gelibolu

(4,709 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, in English Gallipoli , town on the European coast and at the Marmara end of the Dardanelles (Turkish: Čanaḳ-ḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊ [ q.v.]), in the Ottoman period a naval base and the seat of the kapudan-pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], now an ilçe belonging to the il of Çanakkale; the name derives from the Greek Kalliopolis, Kallioupolis, also Kallipolis (for the various forms see E. Oberhummer, in Pauly Wissowa, x, 1659-60). ¶ When, towards 700/1300, the Turks of Anatolia first concerned themselves with the town, it was one of the greatest and strongest Byzantine fortresses in Thrace (P. Lemerle, L’émirat d’…

Es̲h̲ki̇nd̲j̲i̇

(692 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also es̲h̲künd̲j̲i , means in Turkish ‘one who rushes, goes on an expedition’ ( es̲h̲kin is defined by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī [ Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Türk , i, 100; = Besim Atalay’s T. tr., i, 109] as ‘long journey’, and es̲h̲kind̲j̲i as ‘galloping courier’; cf. also Taniklariyle tarama sözlüǧü , ed. Türk Dil Kurumu, i-iv, s.v.; the verb es̲h̲mek , to go on an expedition, was later replaced in Ottoman Turkish by mülāzemet , Ar. mulāzama ). As a term in the Ottoman army es̲h̲kind̲j̲i meant in general a soldier who joined the army on an expedition. Thus es̲h̲kind̲j̲i timariots (see tīmār …

Dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊

(924 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
Turkish term for falconer, from dog̲h̲an , falcon ( tog̲h̲an in Ki̊pčak Turkish, cf. al-Tuḥfa al-zakiyya fi ’l-lug̲h̲a al-Turkiyya , ed. B. Atalay, Istanbul 1945, 260), and in general use any kind of bird of prey. Bāzdār , from Persian, was also frequently used for the dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ . In the Ottoman empire the term dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ in the same sense as in later periods was found as early as the 8th/14th century (cf. P. Wittek, Zu einigen frühosmanischen Urkunden , in WZKM, liv (1957), 240; lvii (1961), 103; for dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ čiftligi see H. Inalcık, Sûret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid

Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, called Bursali̊̊

(606 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman poet of the second half of the 15th century, the most important after S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ī and before Ned̲j̲ātī. He was the son of the ḳāḍī ʿasker Welī al-Dīn b. Ilyās (who claimed descent from Ḥusayn) and was most probably born in Adrianople (according to some authorities in Brusa). He was appointed müderris at the madrasa of Murād II in Brusa and in 855/1451 succeeded Mollā Ḵh̲osrew as ḳāḍī of Adrianople. After the accession of Muḥammad II he became ḳāḍī ʿasker, and tutor of the new ruler, obtaining the rank of vizier. He accompanied the sultan during the conquest ¶ of Constantinople. Thou…

Mazraʿa

(3,189 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
(a.), mazraʿa , mezra or ekinlik in Turkish, means in general arable land, a field; as used in the Ottoman survey registers, it designates a periodic settlement or a deserted village and its fields. According to a regulation, to register a piece of land as mazraʿa it was required that it be checked whether the place had a village site in ruins, its own water supply and a cemetery (Barkan, 53, 133, 190). Such a piece of land is occasionally called matrūk yer, abandoned land. In the daftars [ q.v.] we often find the following note on mazraʿas : “previously it was a villag…

Erzurum

(921 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
one of the principal cities in eastern Turkey, today the chief town of the province of Erzurum with a population of 91,196 (1960 census). Situated between the Karasu and Aras valleys which formed the main thorough fare between Turkey and Īrān for caravans and armies, Erzurum has been an important commercial and military centre in the area since antiquity. It was the ancient Ḳarin, also called Ḳarnoi Ḳal(g̲h̲)aḳ in Armenian, from which Ḳālīḳalā or Ḳālī in the Arabic sources (cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, i, 343; Ibn al-Faḳīh, Ak̲h̲bār al-buldān , Leiden 1885, 295) must have …

Maṭbak̲h̲

(9,044 words)

Author(s): Waines, D. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
(a), kitchen, cookhouse, a noun of place, defined by lexicographers as “the cook’s house” ( bayt al-ṭabbāk̲h̲ ) from the verbal root meaning “the cooking of flesh meat”. The root ṭ-b-k̲h̲ is common to the Semitic family. Already in Akkadian, OT Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopie and post-Biblical Hebrew we find the further, related connotation of “slaughtering” in addition to that of “cooking”. Undoubtedly, the mediaeval domestic maṭbak̲h̲ combined both these functions. By extension of the root meaning, the maṭbak̲h̲ was the place where every conceivable kind of food, including fl…

G̲h̲ulām

(13,969 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Bosworth, C.E. | Hardy, P. | İnalcık, Halil
(A., pl.. g̲h̲ilmān ), word meaning in Arabic a young man or boy (the word is used for example of the ʿAbbāsid princes al-Muʿtazz and al-Muʾayyad, sons of al-Mutawakkil, at the time when their brother, the caliph al-Muntaṣir, attempted to make them renounce their rights to the succession (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 1485), while the son of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ, whom they hesitated to proclaim caliph because of his youth, is described as g̲h̲ulām amrad “beardless” (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 1368)); then, by extension, either a servant, sometimes elderly (cf. Ch. Pellat, Milieu , Paris 1953,…

Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a K̲h̲āʾin

(380 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman Vizier. Georgian in origin, Aḥmed entered Selīm I’s palace as iĉ-og̲h̲lani̊ ; later, as büyük emīr-i ākhūr he took part in the campaign against the Mamlūks in 1516-7 and became beglerbegi of Rūm-ili in 1519. In the campaign of Süleymān I against Belgrade Aḥmed’s plan of operations was accepted. Accordingly he took Bögürdelen (Sabacz) (2 S̲h̲aʿbān 927/8 July 1521) and invaded Syrmia. As a reward for his services in the siege of Belgrade the sultan appointed him vizier of the dīwān (autumn of 1521). In the campaign against Rhodes he, as commander…

Arnawutluḳ

(8,470 words)

Author(s): Mann, S.E. | İnalcık, Halil
, the Ottoman Turkish name for albania. 1.—Language. Allegedly descended from Pelasgian, Albanian is an Indo-European language of “satem” type like Armenian, Indo-Iranian and Slavonic. No literary records occur before 1496 A.D., but ancient Illyrian and ancient Epirote, on the basis of personal and place names, are held to be the prototypes of Geg (northern) and Tosḳ (southern) Albanian respectively. Illyrian mantua , mantia , “bramble”, and grōssa , “file”, are Albanian mand , manzë and grresë respectively. Macedonian, Thracian and Dacian were languages of Albanian type. Known as s…

Iskender Beg

(2,429 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman name for George (Gjergj) Kastriota (b. 808/1405, d. 872/1468), in Western sources Scanderbeg, etc., hero of the Al-banian “resistance” to the Turks in the mid-9th/15th century. By the first half of the 9th/15th century the Kastriota family, with their centre at Matia, had supplanted the Bashas as the most influential power of Northern Albania. They had acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty since 787/1385; Iskender’s father John/Ivan (in Ottoman sources Yovan) had been a buffer between the Venetians installed in Scutari (Is̲h̲kodra [ q.v.]) and the Ottomans, ready to flee …

Balkan

(2,091 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the Balkan peninsula. The word Balkan means mountain or mountain range and, in the form of Balkanli̊k , rugged zone in Turkish. The etymology of the word is now linked with balk , mud, and the diminutive suffix, -an in Turkish (according to H. Eren). There is a mountain called Balk̲h̲an in Türkmenistan. The word Balkan was used first by the Ottomans in Rumeli in its general meaning of mountain, as in Kod̲j̲a-Balkan, Čatal-Balkan, and Ungurus-Balkani̊ (the Carpathians). But specifically it was applied to the Haemus range of the ancient and mediaeval…

Ḳaplan Girāy II

(351 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Crimean Tatār K̲h̲ān (S̲h̲awwāl 1183-S̲h̲aʿbān 1184/February-November 1770). He was appointed nuradin ( nūr al-dīn) in 1182-1183/1768-1769 and K̲h̲ān in S̲h̲awwāl 1183/February 1770. He sent his ḳalg̲h̲ay and nuradin to the Crimea to defend it against the Russians, while the Ottoman commander K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a appointed him to the campaign intended to expel the Russians from Bog̲h̲dān (Moldavia). He was unsuccessful against the Russian artillery on the Prut, and retired to Kalči, whilst Rumyantsev crossed the Prut and rou…

Ḳānūnnāme

(4,937 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, in Ottoman usage the term generally referred to a decree of the sultan containing legal clauses on a particular topic. In the 9th/15th century the term yasaḳnāme had the same meaning, and during the Arab caliphate ḳawānīn had the sense of “a code of laws”. In the Ottoman empire Ḳānūnnāme was occasionally extended to refer to regulations which viziers and pas̲h̲as had enacted (see Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a ḳānūnnāmesi , in M. T. Gökbilgin, Edirne ve Paşa livasi , Istanbul 1952, 434), laws which a competent authority had formulated ( e.g., the ḳānūnnāme of the nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊

Ḳuṭn

(12,488 words)

Author(s): Ashtor, E. | İnalcık, Halil
, Ḳuṭun (A.), cotton. 1. In the mediaeval Arab and Persian lands. In the period of the Arab conquests cotton had already been propagated from India to eastern Persia and the neighbouring lands. It was cultivated everywhere and a flourishing industry produced cotton goods there. The Arab geographers, in describing the economy of these lands in the ʿAbbāsid period, speak especially of the production of cotton goods, but there is good reason to suppose that these factories used the cotton planted in their own regions. In modern Afg̲h̲ānistān, Kabul and Herat had cotton factories wh…

Ḏj̲izya

(9,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Hardy, P.
(i)—the poll-tax which, in traditional Muslim law, is levied on non-Muslims in Muslim states. The history of the origins of the d̲j̲izya is extremely complex, for three different reasons: first, the writers who, in the ʿAbbāsid period, tried to collect the available materials relating to the operation of the d̲j̲izya and the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ found themselves confronted by texts in which these words were used with different meanings, at times in a wide sense, at others in a technical way and even then varying, so that in order to …

Bender

(425 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, a town in Bessarabia; the name appears on a coin of Mengli Gerey dated 905/1499-1500. It is found in the Tatar documents as Bender Kerman (V. Zernov, Materiaux , 16). Bender, from Persian Bandar , was called earlier Tigina or Tighinea which may have a Kuman origin. That the town was first established by the Genoese is a legend ( Chronique dUreche , ed. Giurescu). Its rise as a trading town with important customs revenue was due to its being on the “Tatar-route” on which an active trade was carried on between Lvov and the Crimea and Ak Kirmān [ q.v.] in the 14th century. The place seems to pa…

Mesīḥ Pas̲h̲a

(1,467 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman Grand Vizier in 906/1501. Mesīḥ and his elder brother Ḵh̲āṣṣ Murād were sons of a brother of Constantine IX Palaeologus (Babinger, Eine Verfügung ). Apparently Mesīḥ and Murād were captured during the conquest of Constantinople and brought up as pages in Meḥemmed II’s seraglio. The Greek faction under this Sultan first came to power when he decided to conquer the Greek island of Euboea (Eg̲h̲riboz) in 875/1470. Mesīḥ distinguished himself for the first time during this campaign as sand̲j̲aḳ begi of Gelibolu [ q.v.] and admiral of the navy. But soon afterwards he offere…

Filāḥa

(13,214 words)

Author(s): Shihabi, Mustafa al- | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Habib, Irfan
, agriculture. Falḥ , the act of cleaving and cutting, when applied to the soil has the meaning of “to break up in order to cultivate”, or “to plough”. Fallāḥ “ploughman”, filāḥa “ploughing”. But from pre-Islamic times the word filāḥa has assumed a wider meaning to denote the occupation of husbandry, agriculture. In this sense it is synonymous with zirāʿa , to which the ancients preferred filāḥa (all the earlier writers called their works on agriculture Kitāb al-Filāḥa ). At the present time this latter word is very widely used in North Africa, both …

Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Girāy

(1,234 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
(d. 871/1466), founder of ¶ the Girāy dynasty of K̲h̲āns of the Crimea. On his coins he calls himself ‘al-Sulṭān Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Kerey b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn K̲h̲ān’ (see O. Retovski, Die Münzen der Girei , Moscow 1905, nos. 1-4); according to Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī Bahādur K̲h̲ān ( S̲h̲ad̲j̲ara-i Turk , ed. Riḍā Nūr, Istanbul 1925, 184) his father and grandfather were G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn and Tas̲h̲-timur respectively (cf. M. Riḍā, al-Sabʿ al-sayyār , 69-71). The identification of him with Dewlet-berdi (V. D. Smirnov, Kri̊mskoe k̲h̲anstvo ..., St. Petersburg 1887, 221…

Meḥemmed I

(4,140 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman sultan, reigned 816-24/1413-21, also known as Čelebi (Turkish "of high descent", "prince") or as Kiris̲h̲d̲j̲i (from Krytzes , meaning in Greek "young lord"). During the period of interregnum, 804-16/1402-13, he ruled over Anatolia from Tokat, Amasya, and Bursa while his brothers Süleyman (804-13/1402-11) and Mūsā (813-16/1411-13) had control of Rūmili from Edirne. Meḥemmed brought under his rule Bursa and western Anatolia in the years 805-6/1403-4 and 813-16/1410-13, and finally ac…

Maḥkama

(51,808 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Findley, C.V. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Layish, A. | Et al.
(a.), court. The subject-matter of this article is the administration of justice, and the organisation of its administration, in the Muslim countries, the office of the judge being dealt with in the art. ḳāḍī . The following topics are covered: 1. General The judicial functions of the Prophet, which had been expressly attributed to him in the Ḳurʾān (IV, 65, 105; V, 42, 48-9; XXIV, 48, 51), were taken over after his death by the first caliphs, who administered the law in person in Medina. Already under ʿUmar, the expansion of the Islami…

Rūmeli̇

(4,166 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, originally rūm-ili , the territory of the Rūm [ q.v.], the geographical name given to the Balkan peninsula by the Ottomans; also the ¶ name of the Ottoman province which included this region. The Muslims knew the Byzantines as Rūm , and the Eastern Roman Empire as Bilād al-Rūm or Mamlakat al-Rūm , hence once Anatolia came under Turkish-Islamic rule, the designation Rūm survived as a geographic name to designate Asia Minor. Some Western travellers of the 13th century, however, referred to Anatolia under Turkish rule as Turquemenie or Turquie and used the name Romania

G̲h̲zī Girāy III

(192 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ḵh̲ān of the Crimea from 1116/1704 until 1118/1707. In Rad̲j̲ab 1110/January 1699 he was appointed Nuradin ( Nūr al-Dīn [ q.v.]) by his brother Dewlet Girāy II, but rebelled, in collusion wtih the Nog̲h̲ay, and was dismissed. He came to Edirne and was exiled by the Porte to Rhodes. Upon the accession of his father Selīm Girāy [ q.v.] in 1114/1702, he was recalled and made ḳalg̲h̲ay [ q.v.], and at his death succeeded him as Ḵh̲ān (3 Ramaḍān 1116/30 December 1704). In spite of the Porte’s pacific attitude, he himself followed an anti-Russian policy during the Ru…

D̲j̲em

(2,363 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
son of Sultan Meḥemmed II, was born on 27 Ṣafar 864/22 December 1459 in Edirne (cf. Wāḳiʿāt-i Sulṭān Ḏj̲em , 1). His mother, Čiček K̲h̲ātūn, was one of the djāriyes in Meḥemmed II’s harem. She may have been connected with the Serbian royal house (cf. Thuasne, Djem-Sultan , Paris 1892, 2). Her brother, ʿAlī Beg, was with D̲j̲em in Rhodes in 887/1482 ( Wāḳiʿāt , 7). D̲j̲em was sent to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḳastamoni as its governor with his two lalas in the first ten days ( awāʾil ) of Rad̲j̲ab 873/15-25 January 1469 ( Wāḳiʿāt, 1; according to Kemāl Pas̲h̲azāde, Tevârih-i Āl-i Osman

Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a Gedik

(550 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Serbia, he was taken into Murād II’s palace as an iç-og̲h̲lani̊ and became for a short time beglerbegi of Rūm (Toḳat) under Meḥmed (Muḥammad) II before being appointed beglerbegi of Anatolia in 1461. He kept this post until he was made a vizier in 1470. He played a decisive role in consolidating the new conquests in Anatolia against the Ḳaramanids and Aḳ Ḳoyunlus. He first distinguished ¶ himself by capturing Koyli̊ Ḥiṣār (1461). In 1469-72 he subdued the mountainous part of Ḳaraman-ili and its coastal area, taking ʿAlāʾiyya in 1471, …

Čerkes

(5,138 words)

Author(s): Quelquejay, Ch. | Ayalon, D. | İnalcık, Halil
, The name of Čerkes (in Turkish čerkas , perhaps from the earlier "kerkète", indigenous name: Adi̊g̲h̲e) is a general designation applied to a group of peoples who form, with the Abk̲h̲az [ q.v.], the Abaza (cf. Beskesek Abazā ) and the Ubək̲h̲, the north-west or Abasgo-Adi̊g̲h̲e branch of the Ibero-Caucasian peoples. The ancestors of the Čerkes peoples were known among the ancients under the names of Σινδοί, Κερχεταί, Ζιχγοί, Ζυγοί, etc., and lived on the shores of the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea and in the plains of the Kuban to the south an…
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