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Symeon

(626 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus | Berger, Albrecht
(Συμεών). [English version] [1] Mönch und Priester, 4. Jh. Makarios der Ägypter (Μακάριος). Um 300 geboren, lebte Makarios ca. 330 - ca. 390 als Mönch und Priester in der sketischen Wüste (Äg.). Die Berichte über sein Leben (Rufinus, Historia monachorum 21; Pall. Laus. 17) schildern seine asketische Vollkommenheit und seine Wundertaten. Die spätere hagiographische Tradition hat dies zu einer Vita ausgestaltet. Bis auf mündliches Spruchgut (Apophthegmata Patrum) sind keine Äußerungen des Makarios überl.; ein ihm zugeschriebener Brief dürfte unecht sein (…

Baptism, symbol of.

(381 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] Symbols of baptism are the professions of faith (= creed), which were spoken during or in conjunction with a  baptism. The assumption of older scholars that NT professions of faith such as Rom 10,9 or Phil 2,11 were connected with baptisms, are not supported by any documentation apart from a single interpolation dating from the late 2nd cent. (Acts 8,37). Set formulae for the profession of faith during baptism are documented from the early 3rd cent., but originally they were not spoken by the celebrant himself. The earliest clear confirmation of the baptismal symbol ( symbo…

Messaliani

(392 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] (Μασσαλιανοί; Massalianoí). The Messaliani (Syrian mṣallyēnē for ‘prayer’; Greek Euchites, Εὐχῖται/ Euchîtai), as they were known to their enemies, referred to themselves as ‘Pneumatics’ (Πνευματικοί/ Pneumatikoí, ‘endowed with spirit’), or ‘(true) Christians’. The participants of the 4th- and 5th-cent. Christian synods who condemned the Messalians took offense at their prayer, regarding it as immoderate and as a challenge to baptism, because the Messalians claimed prayer to be the essential path to perfe…

Baptism

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] I. Non-Christian There are analogies to the Christian baptism (βάπτισμα; báptisma or βαπτισμός; baptismós, Lat. baptisma or baptismus) in the history of other religions: rituals involving immersion in, or sprinkling with water and cleansing rituals were widespread prior to and alongside Christianity. However, these rituals followed different procedures and were interpreted differently, even though from the Christian point of view they were seen as a satanic mockery of the Christian baptism (Tert. …

Messalianer

(342 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[English version] (Μασσαλιανοί). Die von ihren Gegnern so bezeichneten M. (syrisch mṣallyēnē für “Beter”; griech.: Euchiten, Εὐχῖται) nannten sich selbst “Pneumatiker” (Πνευματικοί, “Geistbegabte”) oder “(wahre) Christen”. Das von ihnen praktizierte Gebet empfanden die Teilnehmer der sie im 4. und 5. Jh. verurteilenden christl. Synoden als übertrieben und als Konkurrenz zur Taufe, da es der entscheidende Weg zu Vollkommenheit sein und im Gegensatz zu ihr die Sünde im Menschen vollständig beseitigen sollte …

Symeon

(715 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Συμεών; Symeṓn). [German version] [1] Monk and priest, 4th cent. AD Macarius the Egyptian (Μακάριος/ Makários). Born around the year AD 300, Macarius lived from c. AD 330 - c. 390 as a monk and priest in the Scetic desert (Egypt). The accounts of his life (Rufinus, Historia monachorum 21; Pall. Laus. 17) describe his immaculate ascetism and his miracles. The later hagiographic tradition has developed this into a vita. Except for a number of oral sayings ( Apophthegmata patrum) none of Macarius' pronouncements have been handed down; a letter attributed to him may well be a…

Sphragis

(434 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone | Gärtner, Hans Armin | Fitschen, Klaus
(σφραγίς, wörtl. “Siegel”). [English version] [1] Siegel(stein) Siegel(stein): Edel- oder Schmuckstein mit Intaglio-Schnitt, Siegelring, Siegel(abdruck). Auf den aus dem röm. Äg. stammenden magischen Amulett-Gemmen des 2.-4. Jh. n. Chr. wird inschr. häufig das dämonenbannende Siegel des Salomo sowie in Verbindung mit Salomo-Motiven das Siegel Gottes erwähnt ( sphragís theú). Steinschneidekunst Michel, Simone Bibliography S. Michel, Die magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, 2001, 268 ff., Taf. 64-66; 430-450. [English version] [2] s. Siegel; Subscriptio s. Sieg…

Sphragis

(481 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
(σφραγίς/ sphragís, literally  Seal). [German version] [1] Seal (stone) Seal (stone): precious or decorative stone with intaglio engraving, signet ring, seal (impression). On 2nd-4th cent. AD magical amulet gems from Roman Egypt there is often mention of the demon-averting seal of Solomon and, connected with Solomon motifs, the Seal of God ( sphragìs theoû). Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Michel, Die magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, 2001, 268 ff., pls. 64-66; 430-450. [German version] [2] see Seals ; Subscriptio See Seals; Subscriptio. Gärtner, Ha…

Toleranz

(4,322 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Eder, Walter | Fitschen, Klaus | Hollender, Elisabeth | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel
I. Begriff und Philosophie A. Moderner Begriff B. Lateinisch tolerantia: Wort und Begriff C. Toleranz zwischen Staat und Religionsgemeinschaften Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard [English version] A. Moderner Begriff Das Wort T. bezeichnet in der Neuzeit allg. die Bereitschaft von Individuen, Gruppen oder Staaten, die Meinungen, Lebensformen, philos. und rel. Überzeugungen anderer neben den eigenen “gelten” zu lassen. Die Bed. des Wortes reicht h. von “Duldung” (z. B. im staatsrechtlichen Sinne: Duldung von Immigranten, ve…

Syrien

(7,625 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Daniel | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Fitschen, Klaus | Tamcke, Martin | Kaufhold, Hubert | Et al.
[English Version] I. Geographie Griech. Συρι´α/Syría entstand als verkürzte Bildung zu ᾿Ασσυρι´α/Assyría (Assyrien); in der griech. und lat. hschr. Überlieferung werden beide Landschaftsbez. z.T. promiscue verwendet. Syría bez. zunächst, der pers. Satrapie ʿEbar-naharā entsprechend, das Gebiet zw. Ägypten und Kleinasien unter Einschluß der Landschaft östlich des Euphrat, die jedoch seit der Zeit des Alexanderzugs Mesopotamien genannt wurde. Das nun im Osten an den Euphrat grenzende S. schied man seit der …

Syria

(8,420 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Daniel | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Fitschen, Klaus | Tamcke, Martin | Kaufhold, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Geography Greek Συρία/ Syría is an abbreviated form of ’Ασσυρία/ Assyría (“Assyria”); Greek and Latin manuscripts often use the two terms indiscriminately. Initially Syría, corresponding to the Persian satrapy of ʿEbar-naharā, denoted the region between Egypt and Asia Minor, including the area east of the Euphrates, which was called Mesopotamia after Alexander’s campaign. After the time of the Seleucids, Syria, with the Euphrates now marking its eastern border, was divided into northern Syria Coele and southern Syria Phoenice (Phoenicia), bordering on Pa…

Tolerance

(4,834 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Terminology and philosophy [German version] A. Modern concept The general modern meaning of the word 'tolerance' is the readiness of individuals, groups or states to permit the opinions, ways of life and philosophical and religious convictions of others to 'have validity' alongside their own. Today, the meaning of the word ranges from 'sufferance' (e.g. in the sense of constitutional law: the sufferance of immigrants, diverse confessions, religions) to the emphatic affirmation of the 'different' pheno…

Millenarianism/Chiliasm

(4,324 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Aune, David E. | Fitschen, Klaus | Leppin, Volker | Boyer, Paul S | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. North America – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Islam – VII. China I. Religious Studies Millenarianism (chiliasm) refers to the notion of a 1,000-year (Lat. millenarius, Gk χίλια/ chília) period ¶ immediately preceding the Last Judgment and the end of the world. This conception of world history (see also II) derives from Jewish apocalypticism (III) and became widespread over time, being interpreted in various ways depending on the age and cultural envi…
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