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Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…

Ionia

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰωνία; Iōnía, Ἰωνίη; Iōníē). West Anatolian countryside between Aeolis in the north, Lydia in the east, the Aegean in the west and Caria in the south; it includes the settlement area in Asia Minor of the  Iones, who moved in there in connection with the post-Mycenaean migration and since about 700 BC were amalgamated in the Panionian Amphiktyonia (cf. the descriptions of I. in Str. 14,1; Plin. HN 5,112-120) with the cities of (cf. Hdt. 1,142-148; Aesch. Pers. 771) Miletus, Myus, Pri…

Historical geography

(3,973 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Historical geography (HG) is a branch of geography or, to be precise, historiography and is concerned with the ever changing relationship between human beings and the landscape. As well as verbal (literary, epigraphic, numismatic) and representational (archaeological) evidence of the past, its main source is the topographical framework of historical events. Nowadays, HG is essentially characterized by two different paths of scholarly rese…

Menophanes

(284 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μηνοφάνης; Mēnophánēs). [German version] [1] General of Mithradates VI, 88 BC General of Mithradates VI. In the first Mithradatic War, in 88 B.C., he defeated Roman troops under M'. Aquillius [I 4] (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,22,7). It is doubtful whether this was the battle at Proton Pachion mentioned by Appianus (Mith. 72) [3. 110127]. According to Pausanias (3,23,3-5), in the same year, either on orders of the King or on his own initiative, M. conquered, plundered and destroyed Delos, killed the foreigners and Delian men there, and enslaved their wive…

Zenodotium

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζηνοδότιον; Zēnodótion). City in Osroene near Nicephorium (Arr. FGrH 156 F 33; Plut. Crassus 17,6: Ζηνοδοτία/ Zēnodotía; Cass. Dio 40,13,2), not more precisely locatable. When the pro-consul M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus marched across the  Euphrates [2] against the Parthians in the autumn of 54 BC, he felt compelled to capture the city, which was under the tyranny of a Greek called Apollonius, by force, and for this the army proclaimed him imperator. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 19.

Senonia

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] At the end of the 4th cent. AD a province (officially Lugdunensis S.: Notitia Galliarum 4,1; Notitia Dign. Occ. 3,31; 22,19; Senonica: ibid. 1,117; cf. Laterculus 2,16) of the Septem Provinciae dioikesis of the Galliae praefectura with the civitates of Senones (as a centre of administration, formerly Agedincum), Autessiodurum, Tricasses, Meldi, Parisii, Carnutes and Autricum (modern Chartres) and Aureliani (modern Orléans). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Pedasum

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πήδασον; Pḗdason). Small settlement (πολίχνιον/ políchnion) in the territory of Stratoniceia in Caria (Str. 13,1,59); its precise location has yet to be established [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. Pedasa (2), RE 19, 27.

Tibareni

(151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τιβαρηνοί/ Tibarēnoí). People (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 204; Xen. An. 5,5,2; Scymn. 914; Mela 1,106; Plin. HN 6,11; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 124; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τιβαρηνία) of Scythian descent (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 159) on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.), neighbouring the Mossynoeci to the east and the Chalybes to the west and south; Cotyora was in their region. Under Darius [1] I and Xerxes, the T. were part of the 19th Satrapy (Hdt. 3,94) and served in Xerxes' army i…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Teuthrania

(163 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τευθρανία; Teuthranía). Region or its capital in the Mysian valley of the lower Caicus [1]. The name is derived from Teuthras, who reportedly took in Auge [2] and her son Telephus [1] as guests when they were washed ashore in Mysia. The region is generally located from the Aeolian coast between Atarneus and Cisthene (at modern Gömeç) inland about as far up as the upper Macestus. The site of the city (Str. 13,1,69; Plin. HN 5,126) has been located (though without certainty) near mo…

Elaver

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern Allier, source at 1,430 m elevation on Mont Lozère; flows from the left side into the Liger below Noviodunum after a course of 375 km (Caes. B Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Tyndaris

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…

Arcathias

(110 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀρκαθίας; Arkathías). Son of  Mithridates VI (different from Ariarathes IX [1; 2; 3]), led 10,000 horsemen from Lesser Armenia into the opening battle of the Mithridatic Wars (autumn of 89 BC) at the Amnias against  Nicomedes IV; he marched with a Pontic army in 88/87 BC through Macedonia and organized the conquered territories into  satrapies. He fell ill at the Tisaeum in Magnesia and died (App. Mith. 63-65; 137; 156). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Magie, 1105 note 41 2 B.C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator King of Pont…

Zerbis

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name given in Plin. HN 6,118 to a left-bank tributary of the Tigris in Adiabene. It remains questionable whether he meant the Lycus [14] (modern Al-Zāb al-Kabīr, 'Greater Zab') or the Caprus [2] (modern Al-Zāb al-Ṣaġīr, 'Lesser Zab'). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Niphates

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νιφάτης/ Niphátēs). Mountain range on the Thospitis Limne (Van Gölü) in Armenia, belonging to the eastern Taurus massif (Doğu Toros Dağları) (Str. 11,12,4; 11,13,3; 14,2; 8; Plin. HN 5,27; Mela 1,15,81; Plut. Alexandros 31,10; Ptol. 5,13,4; 6,1,1; Amm. Marc. 23,6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. N.; cf. Hor. Carm. 2,9,20; Verg. G. 3,30; Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,4) - in a narrower sense probably İhtiyarşahap Dağları with Mevzi Dağı (3446 m) in the south of Van Gölü or Ala Dağları with Tendürek Dağı (3533 m) in the north-east of Van Gölü. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Sy…

Stadiasmos

(188 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (σταδιασμός/ stadiasmós) is the term for distance in stádia (Str. 1,3,2; 4,6; 2,1,17; 4,7; Stadion [1]) analogous to which miliasmós is the term for distance in milia 'miles' (Str. 6,2,1; cf. Eust. ad Hom. Od. 2,133,2: miliasmoû ... ḕ stadiasmoû). Consequently the stadiasmôn epidromḗ (Marcianus, Epit. peripli Menippi 3 = GGM 1,566,23), was an abridgment, made by Timosthenes of Rhodes of his own 10-volume description of harbours (mid-3rd cent. BC), a 'compilation of distance data in stádia' from harbour to harbour. It was not until the 2nd cent. AD that stadiasmos was a…

Polemonium

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολεμώνιον/ Polemṓnion). Port city on the south shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Ptol. 5,6,4; Peripl. m. Eux. 30-33; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.; Plin. HN 6,11; Tab. Peut. 10,3; Hierocles, Synekdemos 37) at the modern Bolaman, 10 km west of Fatsa, where the Sidenus (Str. 1,3,7; 2,5,25; 3,3,14-16; modern Bolaman Irmağı) flows into a broad bay. Named after Polemon [4] I (37-7 BC: EM s. v. Πολεμώνιος). The town was probably built on the site of Side, a settlement which was abandoned by Strabo's (12,3,16) time (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,16, who emphasizes the Greek tradition of P.). O…

Mare Germanicum

(573 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (North Sea). This shelf sea, a marginal sea of the Atlantic ( Oceanus), assumed its present form in the Jura. In the west, it is separated from the Atlantic by the Straits of Dover, in the north-west, by the line of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In the east, the Skagerrak separates it from the Baltic Sea ( Mare Suebicum). There are few bordering archipelagos north-west and south-east. The Mare Germanicum (MG) extends over an area of 0.58 million km2, it contains 0.054 km3 of water, its medium depth is around 94 m, its greatest depth is 725 m near Arendal in th…

Gorgopis limne

(99 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γοργῶπις λίμνη; Gorgôpis límnē). In Aesch. Ag. 302, it belongs to the chain of fire signals from Ida to Mycenae between  Cithaeron and Aigiplanktos ( Gerania in the Megaris) and is therefore regarded as identical with the eastern part of the gulf of Corinth, the bay of Eleusis, and several lakes on the Isthmus of Corinth (Limni Vouliagmenis to the west of the Gerania, cf. Xen. Hell. 4,5,6; Limni Psatho to the east of Schinos). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. G. 1), RE 7, 1658f. W. Leiner, Die Signaltechnik der Ant., 1982, 59ff. Philippson/Kirst…

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Pirustae

(170 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πειροῦσται/ Peiroûstai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,16,8) in the ore-rich region between Lim and Drin in modern Albania, first mentioned in Liv. 45,26,13 in the context of the conclusion of the 3rd Macedonian War, 167 BC, as a civitas libera et immunis. At that time, its relationship with Rome was governed by a treaty. However, in 54 BC the P. undertook excursions into the Roman province of Illyricum for plunder. In reaction, the proconsul of the province, Caesar, restored order in the frontier region by taking h…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

Eupatoria

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius The town established by Mithridates the Great in Pontus at the confluence of the Iris (modern Yeşilırmak) into the Lycus (modern Kelkit Cayı) had without a fight opened the gates to the Romans under Lucullus in 71 BC in the 3rd Mithridatic War; as a result it was totally destroyed by the king four years later. The reconstruction had not yet been completed when Pompey captured E. in 65 BC and, renamed Magnopolis, incorpor…

Thymbrium

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θύμβριον; Thýmbrion). City in eastern Phrygia, 10 parasangai ( Parasángēs ; 57 km) both from Caystru Pedion [2] in the west and Tyriaeium in the east, to be found in the area of modern Doğanhisar to the southeast of Akşehir (Xen. An. 1,2,13; Plin.  HN 5,95: Thymbriani in Lycaonia in the early Imperial period  province of Asia; Hierocles, Synecdemus 673,9: Τιμβριάδων in the late Antiquity  province of Pisidia). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 792 f.

Zabida

(127 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάβιδα/ Zábida). Village settlement in the centre of a large oasis in the interior of Arabia Felix (Arabia), on the Wādī Zabīd to the northeast of modern Zabīd (in Yemen), mentioned by Uranius [3] in the third book of his Arabiká (in Steph. Byz. s. v. Z.). Z. and its port on the Erythra Thalatta [1] was the starting point of an important trade route into the high mountains through Achoma (modern Aḫum) and Adana (modern Al-Udain) to Tarphara (modern Ẓafār), the chief town of the Homeritae, the Ḥimyar of Arab literature. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Dietric…

Xodrace

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξοδράκη; Xodrákē). City in the western part of India, left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,60), on the southeast border between modern Pakistan and India; not precisely locatable. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2149-2152.

Zaliches

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαλίχης/ Zalíchēs). Coastal city on the coastal river of the same name (Marcianus [1], Epit. Peripl. Menipp. 10: Ζάληκος/ Zálēkos; Peripl. m. Eux. 24; Ptol. 5,4,3: Ζαλίσκος ποταμός/ Zalískos potamós) in Pontus, in late Antiquity one of the seven cities of the consular province of Helenopontus: Σάλτος ( Saltus ) Ζαλίχης/ Sáltos Zalíchēs (Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,6 - an imperial domain?) with the suffragan bishopric of Amasea, now also called Leontoupolis (possibly from the reign of the emperor Leon [4] I, 457-474, onwards; Not. Episc. 1, 240: Ζ. ἤτοι Λεοντούπολις/ Z.…

Mithridatic Wars

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Mithridatic Wars (MW) is the term for the military conflicts between Mithridates [6] VI Eupator, the ruler of the kingdom of Pontus, and Rome. The wars each originated in Mithridates' attempts to expand his domain in the manner of the Diadochi in Asia Minor and constantly led to conflicts with Rome, which did not wish to permit a concentration of power in the region. [German version] A. The First Mithridatic War (89-85 BC) It was out of the attempt by Mithridates after the death of Nicomedes [4] III (94) to pass over the legitimate successor, enthrone Nicomedes' brot…

Philomelium

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Φιλομήλιον; Philomḗlion). City in southern Phrygia, in the valley of the Gallus [1] (coins: HN 683), on the road leading east from Ephesus at the crossroads to Dorylaeum and Caesarea (Str. 11,6,1; 12,8,14; Ptol. 5,2,25; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φιλομήλειον; Cic. Verr. 2,3,191; MAMA 7,38-42). It was founded in the 3rd cent. BC by a Macedonian dynast named Philomelus (Lit. in [1. 131317]). At the time of Cicero's proconsulship, P. was part of the province of Cilicia (Cic. Fam. 3,8,5f.; 1…

Pleraei

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πληραῖοι; Plēraîoi). Illyrian people, whose area of settlement on the Ionios Kolpos stretched from the left bank at the mouth of the  Naro and from Corcyra Melaina to Risinium (Strab. 7,5,5; 7; Mela 2,3,56f.; Plin. HN 3,144; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Πλαραῖοι, who also has the form Πλάριοι). Like the neighbouring Ardiaei, they were notorious pirates (Piracy). In 135 BC they were subjugated by the Romans (App. Ill. 29: Παλάριοι). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, The Kingdoms in Illyria circa 400-167 BC, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 239-253  G. Alföldy, A. Mó…

Lebedus

(176 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Λέβεδος; Lébedos). A harbour town founded by Ionians in the area settled by Carians (Paus. 7,3,2; formerly Ἄρτις/ Ártis, Str. 14,1,3 Hecat. FGrH 1 F 219; Hdt. 1,142), member of the Delian League, surrendered by Lysimachus in favour of Ephesus (Paus. 1,9,7), refounded in 266 BC by Ptolemy II as Ptolemaïs; but the name L. was soon revived again. In the 2nd cent. BC, seat of the Artists of Dionysus ( technítai ), who were originally located in Teos. If - on the basis of Hor.…

Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Zakoria

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Station on the Pontic coast road (Arr. Per. p. E. 21: Ζάγωρα/ Zágōra; Tab. Peut. 10,1; Geogr. Rav. 2,17: Agoria; 5,10: Z.; Guido, Geographica 101) from Sinope to Trapezus between Gurzubathon (modern Kurzuvet) and Zaliches (at modern Alaçam), presumably at modern Çayağzı at the mouth of the Aksu. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caecinus

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καικῖνος; Kaikînos). According to Paus. 6,6,4, the C. is the border river between  Locri and Rhegium, where the Athenians under  Laches [1] defeated the Locrians under Proxenus (Thuc. 3,103,3) in what is today Amendolea/Sicily. The Locrian fist fighter Euthymus was worshipped at a hero-shrine and regarded as the son of the river god C. (Ael. VH 8,18). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.

Tegianum

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (modern Teggiano). City in Lucania (Lucani) on the left bank of the Tanager (modern Tanagro) on the via Popilia from Consentia to Aquilonia [1] (Plin. HN 3,98: Tergilani = Tegianenses?; Liber Coloniarum 209). Municipium , which under Nero [1] was elevated to a colonia, tribus Pomptina. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography V. Bracco, Nuove scoperte archeologiche in Lucania, in: RAL 20, 1965, 283 f.

Cotyora

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius (Κοτύωρα; Kotýōra). Port town on the south coast of  Pontus Euxinus, assumed to be near Ordu, where remains of an ancient harbour pier are located. The ‘Ten Thousand’ of  Xenophon rested there for 45 days before they took to the sea in the west. Under Pharnaces I (185-160/154 BC), C. was united in a synoikismós with Cerasus in Pharnacaea and declined to a small town (πολίχνη, Str. 12,3,17) (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 24; Peripl. m. Eux. 34). Olshausen, Eckart (S…

Ximene

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξιμήνη; Ximḗnē). Region in the territory of Amasea, which in the south of Diacopene and Pimolisene "reaches as far as the river Halys... In X. there are salt mines, from which the Halys, it is surmised, took its name" (Str. 12,3,39). According to the sequence of mentions in  Str. loc.cit. the X. is to be looked for in the area between Çorum and the River Kızılırmak. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 174 (with map A 3).

Istros

(32 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴστρος; Ístros). Island documented by Steph. Byz. s.v. I. with homonymous city at the promontory of Triopium (modern Deveboynu Burnu or Kıriyo Burnu) near Cnidus. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Pelorias

(222 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πελωριάς; Pelōriás). Northeastern cape of Sicily (Pol. 1,11,6; 42,5; Diod. Sic. 4,23,1; 5,2,2; 23,1,3; Diod. 4,85,5; 14,56,3; 6; 57,2: Πελωρίς/Pelōrís), modern Capo Peloro or Capo di Faro; in a narrower sense a narrow easterly tongue of land, in a broader sense the whole mountainous promontory running northeast. According to myth, Orion [1] constructed the tongue of land and built a temple to Poseidon there (Hes. fr. 183). According to erroneous ancient ideas about the orientation…

Melanthium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River flowing into the Pontos Euxeinos to the east of Ordu, modern Melet Irmağı (Plin. HN 6,11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Buphagus

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βουφάγος; Bouphágos). Right-hand tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising in the north of Buphagium (city wall and other remains near Paliokastro; its source marked the border between Heraea and Megalopolis. The eponymous hero B., son of the Titan  Iapetus, was killed by Artemis in the Pholoe region (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,26,8; 8,27,17). Buthoinas appears, meaning the same as B., as an approximation of Hercules in Lindus (cf. Anth. Plan. 123). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 103ff.

Duranus

(43 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern-day Dordogne; rises at 1680 m. on the Puy de Sancy (Mont-Dore), and after a course of 490 km flows into the Atlantic with the Garumna to its left (Auson. Mos. 464; Geogr. Rav. 4,40). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Orcistus

(113 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρκιστός/ Orkistós). Originally probably a polis in Galatia, south of modern Ortaköy (formerly Alikel Yayla), added to Nacolea (Phrygia) at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, but Constantine [1] the Great undid this before 331 AD (MAMA 7, 69-75). The small town of Malcaeteni [1. 2020] was part of the territory of O. Attested as a see from the 5th cent. (Domnus at the Council of Ephesus in 431, Longinus at the Council of Chalcedon in 451: Acta Conciliorum Oecumenocorum 1,1 no. 121; 2,1,1 no. 192). A few ancient or Byzantine remains. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. Dr…

Prinus

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρῖνος; Prînos). 1210 m high pass (διὰ Πρίνου καλουμένης: Paus. 8,6,4) leading from Argos [II 1] to Mantinea over Mount Artemisium [2], to the north of the main peak (modern Malevo). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. P., RE 22, 2314 f.  Pritchett 3, 32-46.

Prinkipos

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρίγκιπος/ Prínkipos). Δημόνησοι/ Dēmónēsoi (Hesych. s. v. Δημονήσιος χαλκός) or Πριγκίπιοι νῆσοι/ Prinkípioi nêsoi (Synaxiarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae 158,26 Delehaye) is the description by which an archipelago of nine islands in the northern Propontis is known in the Byzantine literature of Late Antiquity: (from north to south) Prota (modern Kınalı ada), Orea (modern Sivri ada), Panormus (later Antigone, modern Burgaz adası), Pita (modern Kaşık adası), Chalce (modern Heybeli adası),…
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