Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)" )' returned 59 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Coloniae

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition A colonia was a settlement of citizens (with the addition of a greater or lesser proportion of non-citizens) for the military and political securing of Roman rule, later for providing for veterans and occasionally the Roman proletariat, almost always in a conquered city, the citizens of which would also be involved in the colony in some way (cf. the definition in Serv. Aen. 1,12). Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Founding and constitution Coloniae are founded on the basis of the people's law by public officials, mainly IIIviri coloniae deduc…

Vici magistri

(456 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
(Singular vici magister). Elected leaders of vici (Vicus) in the city of Rome and in Italian cities. [German version] I. Rome VM are recorded as early as the Republic; their identification with the magistri collegiorum mentioned in Asconius (p. 6 Clark) cannot be doubted ( pace [2]). Their duties were the cult of the Lares Compitales (Lares [1] C) and organizing the Compitalia on 1 January. In the late Republic they were involved in the political activities of the collegia [1] and for a number of years were banned, until Clodius [I 4] permitted them again. They presumably…

Lapis niger

(186 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Block of black marble found at Rome in 1899 during excavations in the Forum Romanum in front of the Curia Iulia. It is probably the niger lapis in comitio from Fest. 184 L. The upper section of the stone is damaged; on five sides it bears a fragmentary inscription, difficult to read and dating from the (early?) 6th cent. BC (probably the lex sacra of the Volcanal, the surrounding sacred precinct), which mentions a ‘king’ ( recei), his ‘herald’ ( calator) and iouxmenta (draught animals? carts?). This may be the inscription which Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ant. …

Pomerium

(595 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The pomerium was the line, important in religious law, which at Rome and its colonies ( coloniae ) divided the urbs from the ager, i.e. the city in the strictest sense from its surrounding territories. Even in antiquity, the meaning of the word was obscure. According to point of view, it was etymologically explained as the line 'behind' ( post or pone murum) or 'in front of' ( promoerium) the city wall (Varro Ling. 5,143 and Gell. NA 13,14,1 versus Fest. 295), but neither etymology is likely to be tenable The establishment of the pomerium constituted the climax of a city f…

Foedus Gabinum

(148 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alleged treaty from the time of king Tarquinius Superbus (end 6th cent. BC), which was still extant in the Augustan period on a shield covered in cowhide in the temple of Semo Sancus; documented in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,58,4 and on coins of two Antistii (family from Gabii, C.  Antistius [II 7] Vetus and C. Antistius Reginus) from the Augustan period: FOEDUS P.R. CUM GABINIS (RIC2 1, 68 no. 363 and 73 no. 411). Main content was an isopoliteia between Rome and Gabii. According to Varro (Ling. 5,33) the ager Gabinus represented an exceptional feature of augural law between the age…

Foedus

(391 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Ceremonial treaty of peace and friendship between Rome and another state which is placed under the protection of the gods. By contrast to a truce ( indutiae) the foedus was drawn up for the long term ( pia et aeterna pax). The result of the foedus was a   societas or an   amicitia , Rome's partners were   foederati ,   socii or amici (the terms are not strictly differentiated). Originally the foedera were probably signed by the   fetiales in the form of a sponsio (Liv. 1,24); later their role was confined to supervising the religious formalities. The foedus was usually signed by…

Vicesima

(488 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (derived from Lat. viginti, 'twenty'; literally, 'the twentieth part'). In Rome, V. was the term referring to five-per-cent taxes [IV]; esp. important were the V . manumissionum or libertatis (manumission tax) and the V. hereditatium (inheritance tax). According to the annalistic tradition (Liv. 7,16,7; on this [3]), the V. manumissionum or libertatis was already decided upon in 357 BC by the Roman army through a vote according to tribus near Sutrium and was afterwards approved by the Senate. Probably from the beginning, it was…

Latin League

(159 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A federation of towns ( populi) in Latium Vetus that was organized around the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris on mons Albanus , but in part also around that of Diana of Aricia. The rights of members were regulated in the foedus Cassianum . The federation came increasingly under Roman control, first during the time of the Tarquinian kings and then in the 4th cent. BC. In 338 the majority of its members was annexed and the remainder became the prisci Latini. Latini, Latium (with map) Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, 1995, 293ff. H. Gals…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

SPQR

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stands for s(enatus) p(opulus)q(ue) R(omanus) and was the usual title of the Roman state as embodied in its two governing bodies, the 'Senate and People of Rome' (i.e. not, as in Greece, the people alone, e.g. hoi Athēnaîoi), from the 1st cent. BC. Before this, the populus was in first place (first evidence in the decree of Aemilius [I 32] Paullus for Lascuta, early 2nd cent. BC: ILS 15; cf. Pol. 21,10,8). From the time of Augustus, SPQR appears on inscriptions as the author of consecrations (e.g. of buildings and monuments), later also as the recipient of dedications. …

Tabula Hebana

(219 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The five bronze fragments, belonging together, of the TH (from Heba in Etruria) can - just like the Tabula Siarensis found in Siarum (in the province of Seville) in 1980 and other fragments from Todi and Rome - be related to a dossier containing a senatus consultum and a law, based on it, of the consuls of AD 20 ( lex Valeria Aurelia) with decrees for the honouring of Germanicus [2], who had died in AD 19. The dossier provides insight into the functioning of the comitia centuriata during the Imperial period and into the mobilisation of public loyalty for the imperi…

Aesculetum

(52 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Grove of oaks ( aesculus) in Rome, to whose branches the coronae civicae were bound. It lay in the western Campus Martius, opposite the island in the Tiber, by the Lungotevere Cenci. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography S. Panciera, Ancora tra epigrafia e topografia, in: L'Urbs. Espace Urbain et Histoire, 1987, 62-73.

Praedium

(215 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Derived from the Latin praes, 'bondsman', who acted as guarantor with his property for another in the leasing of public duties (and from time out of mind probably also in civil law: cf. Lex XII tab. 1,4). Praedium is used almost synonymously with fundus (Large estates); where more closely defined, a praedium is usually denoted by the place in whose territory it lay, a fundus by the name of the original owner (e.g. praedium Nomentanum, fundus Sextilianus). Praedium includes the estate in the literal sense as well as the buildings on it. Depending on the location or owner,…

Quirites

(218 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Populus Romanus Quirites (or, later, Quiritium) was the official term for the Roman citizenry. It contains the name of the city ( Romanus) and that of the populus ( Quirites), as with Ardea ( Ardeates Rutuli) and Lavinium ( Laurentes Lavinates), where the name of the city stood alongside that of the people living there. The singular form, Quiris, survives only in archaic formulae (Fest. 304: ollus Quiris). The etymological derivation of the term is still disputed. The Romans themselves wished to separate Quirites neither from the god Quirinus nor the Quirinal Hil…

Lex de imperio Vespasiani

(396 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A bronze plaque in the Capitoline Museum in Rome contains the end of the lex de imperio Vespasiani, the so-called enabling law for Vespasianus, with which the Senate decreed at the end of AD 69 - after the death of Vitellius - to Vespasian cuncta principibus solita (‘all that is usual for emperors’, Tac. Hist. 4,3,3), and which was put before the comitia at the beginning of 70 [1. 104f.]. The inscription (from the Lateran?), which no-one could read at the time because of its classical capital letters, served Cola di Rienzo in 1347 for the foundation…

Municipal law

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the field of  legal texts in cuneiform, the political structure of the Mesopotamian confederation, that at times comprised small territorial states and at times large states stretching over the whole of southern Mesopotamia, created regional peculiarities that are demonstrated above all in the form of documents as well as in substantive law. The essential parameters of the legal system were defined by the structure of the society (Social structure), economy and f…

Foedus Cassianum

(240 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alliance entered into with the Latins after the victory over them at the Lacus Regillus in 493 BC by the consul Sp.  Cassius [I 19] Vecellinus, which was extended to the Hernici in 486. The document was still preserved at the time of Cicero on a bronze column (the original?) in the Forum (Cic. Balb. 53). The historicity of the text is acknowledged today, as is the early dating, contrary to earlier research [1. 68f.; 2. 299-301]. The main conditions are found in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,95: peace …

Octoviri

(199 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A collegium of eight municipal officials (Municipium) in cities of eastern Central Italy: Amiternum, Nursia, Trebula Mutuesca, Interamnia Praetuttianorum and Plestia. From the end of the Republic, when octoviri are first documented epigraphically, for the most part the office broke down into individual groups. In Trebula Mutuesca, for instance, there were two VIIIviri duovirali potestate, VIIIviri aedilicia potestate, VIIIviri aerarii and VIIIviri fanorum each (CIL IX 4883, 4891, 4896). It is clear that the six-official scheme then usual in …

Tabula Heracleensis

(256 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Herakleiensis). Bronze tablet (1·84 m × 0·38 m), broken into two parts, found in the area of ancient Heraclea [10] in Lucania. On the front sides of both parts, there are late 4th cent. BC regulations for the administration by public authorities of the estates of two temples, one of Dionysus and one of Athena. The end of a 1st cent. BC Latin text is preserved on the back of one of these tablets. Since the expected sanctio is missing, it can not be a law and therefore also not, as formerly presumed (as e.g. [1. 113-120]), a Caesarian l ex Iulia municipalis. The surviving pa…
▲   Back to top   ▲