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Irenik

(671 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
Der theologische Begriff der I. (»friedliche Haltung/Praxis«, von griech. eirēnikós, »friedlich«), in der Polemik »Synkretismus« genannt, reicht bis zur Wende zum 17. Jh. zurück und bezeichnet eine auf Ausgleich und Frieden bedachte Gesinnung, die um Kooperation der christl. Konfessionen bemüht ist [3]; [4]. Mit ihrem humanistischen Hintergrund, v. a. dem auf Einheit drängenden Kirchenideal des Erasmus von Rotterdam, fand sie im 16. Jh. – zuerst meist bikonfessionell auf Calvinismus und Luthertum orientiert – Unterstützung durch den dt. Reformator Martin Bucer. Sie ver…
Date: 2019-11-19

Vockerodt

(131 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Vockerodt, Gottfried (24.9.1665 Mühlhausen, Thüringen – 10.10.1727 Gotha), 1683 Studium in Jena, 1685 M.A., 1689 gleichzeitig Berufung nach Mühlhausen und Halle, Konrektor in Halle, 1693 Lehrer, 1694–1727 Rektor in Gotha. Der hochgebildete Pädagoge spielte seit seiner möglicherweise mit strategischen Absichten erfolgten Berufung nach Gotha in Zusammenarbeit mit seinen Kollegen Hieronymus Wiegleb (1664–1730) und Johann Andreas Keßler (1673–1710) eine Schlüsselrolle in der Frühgesch…

Rosinus

(152 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Rosinus, Bartholomäus (um 1520 Pößneck, Thüringen – 17.12.1585 Regensburg), 1536 Studium in Wittenberg, 1544 M.A., Lehrer in Gotha, 1544 Rektor, 1551 Diakon in Eisenach. 1559 wurde R. Superintendent in Weimar, 1562/1567 erfolgte seine Entlassung und Wiedereinsetzung im Zuge der religionspolit. Kurswechsel im ernestinischen Thüringen. 1563 war er schönburg-waldenburgischer Superintendent in Glauchau, 1567 Mitverfasser und Unterzeichner der gnesioluth. reußisch-schönburgischen Konfe…

Sagittarius

(153 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Sagittarius, Johann Christfried (28.9.1617 Breslau – 19.2.1689 Altenburg, Thüringen). S. wurde nach dem Tode seiner Eltern ab 1623 in Jena erzogen. Nach Schulbesuch in Braunschweig (bis 1628) und Studium in Jena (bis 1641) wurde S.1641 Konrektor in Hof. 1643 M.A., im selben Jahr Schulrektor in Jena, 1646 Prof. für Historie und Poesie, 1650 Dekan der Philos. Fakultät. 1651 Beginn seiner kirchl. Karriere mit der Berufung als Superintendent von Orlamünde, der der Erwerb des Dr. theol.…

Starcke

(144 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Starcke, Christoph (21.3.1684 Freienwalde – 12.12.1744 Driesen, Neumark). Nach Schulbesuch in Berlin studierte S.1703 in Halle und brachte von dort Anregungen des Pietismus in seine künftige Arbeit als Informator in Berlin (1705), Pfarrer in Nennhausen Kreis Rathenow (1709) und Oberpfarrer und Garnisonprediger in Driesen (1737) ein. Zusammen mit einigen Mitautoren erstellte er als exegetisch-homiletisches, zusätzlich in Tabellen aufbereitetes Nachschlagewerk eine »Synopsis Bibliot…

Neumann

(136 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Neumann, Kaspar (14.9.1648 Breslau – 27.1.1715 ebd.). Studium in Jena 1667, 1670 M.A., 1673 Reisebegleiter des Prinzen Christian von Sachsen-Gotha, 1676 Hofprediger in Altenburg, 1678 Diakon, 1689 Pfarrer an St. Maria Magdalena in Breslau, Prof. an beiden städtischen Gymnasien, 1697 Pfarrer an St. Elisabeth (Pastor primarius), Kirchen- und Schulinspektor. N. trat durch Veröff. von Predigten hervor, die Aspekte zeitgenössischer Naturerkenntnis mit Bibelauslegung verknüpften. 1703 e…

Irenicism

(723 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
The theological term irenicism (“peaceful attitude/behavior,” from Greek  eirenikós, “peaceful”), called “syncretism” by its opponents, goes back to the end of the 17th century and denotes a stance oriented toward balance and peace and aimed at bringing about cooperation among the Christian denominations [3]; [4].The background for this movement was Humanist; Erasmus of Rotterdam, especially, idealized unity within the Church. In the 16th century, it received early support from the German reformer Martin Bucer, initially focused on th…
Date: 2019-10-14

Baier, Johann Wilhelm, the Elder

(260 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1647, Nürnberg – Oct 19, 1695, Weimar) began studying philosophy and (Near Eastern) philology at Altdorf in 1664 followed by Jena in 1669. He received his Dr. theol. in 1674 and was appointed professor in 1675. In 1694 he received an appointment at Halle. In 1695 he sat on the consistory and the church council, and was chief court pre…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Rosenmüller, Johann Georg

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1736, Ummerstadt bei Hildburghausen, Thuringia – Mar 14, 1815, Leipzig). After attending school in Nuremberg since 1751, Rosenmüller began his university studies in 1757 in Altdorf. After a time as a tutor, he was appointed pastor in Hildburghausen in 1767 and in Heßberg in 1768. In 1772 he was appointed deacon and adjunct superintendent in Königsberg, Franconia. In 1775 he was appointed to a chair at Erlangen, and in 1783 he was appointed professor, superintendent, and c…

Magdeburg, Joachim

(235 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (1525, Gardelegen, Altmark – c. 1587) received his bachelor's degree from Wittenberg in 1546, then served as rector in Schöningen until 1547, when he was appointed pastor in Dannenberg. Having served from 1549 to 1551 in Salzwedel, he resigned voluntarily. He served as deacon in Hamburg (Sankt Petri) from 1552 to 1558; after being removed, he served as pastor in Oßmannstedt (Thuringia), where he was removed in 1562. In 1563 he resided in Eisleben. In 1564 he was appointed pastor i…

Zillertal Emigrants

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The Zillertal Emigrants were the last population group in modern European history to be banished for religious reasons. The Zillertal, which had been part of Tyrol since 1816, had been spared the expulsion of the Salzburg Emigrants in 1731/1732, but in 1826 there was open resistance to the Roman Catholic Church on the part of lay Christians. When attempts at conversion failed, the 1836 election of a new archbishop of Salzburg led – under legally dubious circumstances – to the use …

Tschernembl, Georg Erasmus

(170 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 26, 1567, Schloss Schwertberg – Nov 18, 1626, Geneva). After studies in Altdorf and an educational tour of western Europe, he worked in the diplomatic service of the Upper Austrian estates, including stays in Graz and Prague. On the basis of a highly charged theory of a federation of the estates based on Calvinistic theology and hostility to the monarchy ( Consultationes, 1624), he included the Bohemian confederation (president of the Bohemian war council 1619/1620) in his planned federation, which also included the Protestant Union (16…

Ungleich, Lucas

(159 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Unglerus; 1526, Hermannstadt [Sibiu] – Nov 21, 1600, Birthälm, Transylvania [Biertan, Romania]). After studying in Wittenberg, he received his M.A. in 1550 and was appointed lecturer at the Hermannstadt Gymnasium. In 1561 he was a member of a delegation sent to several German universities to confirm the orthodox eucharistic doctrine of the Transylvanian Lutherans. In 1565 he was appointed pastor in Kelling (Calnic), in 1567 in Berthälm. On May 6, 1572, Ungleich received the most …

Irenäus, Christoph

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Summer 1522, Świdnica [Schweidnitz], Poland – c. 1595, Buchenbach, Germany). Irenäus studied in Wittenberg in 1544 and became the head of a school in Bernburg in 1545, then in Aschersleben in 1548. On Feb 17, 1549, he received his M.A. in Wittenberg. After his ordination in Wittenberg (1552), he became deacon in 1553, in 1559 archdeacon in Aschersleben, in 1562 pastor in Eisleben, in 1566 court chaplain to Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxony-Weimar in Coburg and Weimar, in 1570 visitat…

Neumann, Kaspar

(200 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1648, Breslau [today Wroclaw] – Jan 27, 1715, Breslau). Neumann began his studies in Jena in 1667 and received his M.A. in 1670. In 1673 he became the traveling companion of Prince Christian of Saxe-Gotha. In 1676 he was appointed court chaplain in Altenburg; in 1678 he was made deacon and in 1689 pastor of Sankt Maria Magdalena in Breslau and appointed to professorial positions at both municipal Gymnasiums. In 1697 he was appointed pastor primarius of Sankt Elisabeth and made inspector of churches and schools. The publication of sermons linking c…

Agricola, Johann

(292 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Schneyder, Sneider, Schnitter) (Apr 20, 1492 or 1494 or 1495, Eisleben – Sep 22, 1566, Berlin). He attended school in Braunschweig, matriculated in Leipzig in 1509, in Wittenberg in 1550; there, he attained his Magister on Feb 11, 1518, and Baccalaureus biblicus on Sep 19, 1519. Close personal relations with Luther in the years from 1516 were…

Judex (Richter), Matthäus

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1528, Dippoldiswalde – May 16, 1564, Wismar). Judex attended school in Dresden and Magdeburg, began his studies of law and theology in Wittenberg in 1546, received the M.A. in 1549 and in the same year became the co-rector of the Gymnasium in the old city of Magdeburg, in 1554 deacon at St. Ulrich with J. Wigand. In April 1560, he was appointed professor in Jena, and was dismissed on Oct 1, 1561 because of his public criticism of the Lutheran leadership's willingness to c…

Adiaphorist Controversy

(234 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] Adiaphoron ἀδιάφορον, in the context of the Adiaphorist Controversy, indicates the assessment of the requirements laid upon the Protestants after their defeat in the Schmalkaldic War by the Augsburg Interim: the reintroduction of organizational elements from liturgy and church law that had fallen by the wayside or come under …

Peucer, Kaspar

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1525, Bautzen – Sep 25, 1602, Dessau). From 1540 to 1548, Peucer studied in Wittenberg and Frankfurt an der Oder; he gained his M.A. in Wittenberg in 1545. From 1548 he taught mathematics, and in 1554 became professor of mathematics. He lived in the house of the Wittenberg scholar, Melanchthon, from 1540, and was his son-in-law from 1550; he was a close and trusted friend. He edited and continued Melanchthon’s Chronicon Carionis, and a collection of his works and letters. In 1560 he became a doctor of medicine, and in 1566 was raised to the imp…
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