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Hellebic(h)us

(85 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Bearer of a Germanic name; attested as comes et magister utriusque militiae per Orientem from AD 383 to 387; a proponent of euergetism in Antioch. Together with  Caesarius [3], in 387 conducted the investigations after the Antioch statue revolt.  Libanius thanked him with a panegyric for having achieved lenient actions (Or. 22). H. corresponded with Libanius (Ep. 2; 868; 884; 898; 925) and  Gregorius [3] of Nazianzus (Ep. 225). Probably a Christian [1]. (PLRE 1,277f.). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling 265-267.

Spectacles

(2,627 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
I. Principal types [German version] A. Greece Fundamental to Greek spectator events was the distinction between gymnic, hippic and musical agons (Competitions, artistic). All games emerged from cult, whether of the dead or of the gods. They remained connected with the cult and took place in conjunction with festivals (Festivals, ‘Festival culture’). The presentation of gymnic and hippic games (e.g. chariot races, Hom. Il. 23,257-538; Sports festivals), and of choral agons (Hom. Od. 8,256-366) is already found in Homer. Hesiod attests to a musical agon (Hes. Op. 650-659). In the Arc…

Placidia

(163 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] See Galla [3] Placidia See Galla [3] Placidia. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Relative of the imperial family (5th cent. AD) Younger daughter of Valentinianus [4] III and Eudoxia [2], b. AD 441/2. First betrothed to the son of Aetius [5], Petronius Maximus [II 8] apparently forced her into a marriage with his son ([2. 180f.]). In 455, she was taken hostage by the Vandals as they overran Rome; she was released to Constantinople in 462. Probably already married to Anicius [II 15] Olyb…

Arcadius

(544 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor (383-408 AD) Roman emperor (AD 383-1/05/408), born in 377 in Spain, son of Theodosius I. Educated by the pagan  Themistius and the Christian Arsenius; proclaimed Augustus on 19/01/383, since 394 (departure of Theodosius I into war against Eugenius) ruler of the East, in 395 together with Honorius successor of Theodosius I. A. is considered to have been subject to influence: in the beginning the praefectus praetorio  Rufinus who was murdered in 395, conducted his affairs, later the praepositus sacri cubiculi  Eutropius, who…

Pulcheria

(346 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the emperor Theodosius I and Flacilla Daughter of the emperor Theodosius I and Flacilla, born AD 377/8, died 385/6. Her funeral oration by  Gregorius [2] of Nyssa survives (Greg. Nyss. Or. 9,1,459-472). PLRE 1, 755. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Augusta in 414 Daughter of the emperor  Arcadius and his wife Eudoxia (Aelia [4]), born 399, died July 453, granddaughter of  Theodosius  I. After her father's death (408) she raised her brother (born 401)Theodosius II., made herself Augusta (Imperial…

Dalmatius

(366 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Fl. D. Half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I Son of  Constantius [1] and Theodora, half-brother of Constantine I. Nothing is known of his role in the initial period of Constantine's rule, although presumably he was given Toulouse as his abode during the tensions with Licinius in c. AD 320-324 (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). Consul in 333, he was sent to Antioch at around the same time with the archaizing title of censor (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). There he was concerned with murder accusations against Athanasius. In Tarsus he had  Calocaerus burnt to d…

Praetextatus

(153 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Roman cognomen ('boy dressed in a toga praetexta'). Epithet of L. Papirius [I 23] P. and in the Sulpicii family (Sulpicius); widespread in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Vettius Agorius P. Praefectus Urbi AD 265-267 c. AD 320-384. Having started his career as quaestor and praetor, he became corrector Tusciae et Umbriae before 362, as a favourite of Iulianus [11] proconsul Achaiae in 362/4, praefectus urbi in Rome in 365/7, then a praetorian prefect of Illyria, Italia, and Africa; designated a consul in 384; several times …

Honorius

(738 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] (Grand)father of emperor Theodosius I Listed in [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 48,1 as father of the emperor Theodosius I, but may have been his grandfather. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Elder brother of Theodosius I Elder brother of Theodosius I, probably related to  Maria, whose daughter was  Serena; both were taken into the emperor's household. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [3] Flavius H. West Roman emperor 393-423 AD, puer nobilissimus West Roman emperor AD 393-423, was born on 9 September AD 384 …

Eutychianus

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Rom. officer from Cappadocia, eyewitness of the Persian campaign of AD 363 According to Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) a Roman officer from Cappadocia, who recorded his eyewitness account of Julian's Persian campaign of AD 363 in an annalistic history (FHG 4,6). Both the character and his work may well be fictitious (cf. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. AD 396/7 Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) in AD 396/7.; praef. praet. Orientis between 397 and 399; II in 404/5; cos. in 398. His identification with Typhu…

Bonifatius

(349 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Defended Marseille against Athaulf 413 AD B. distinguished himself in AD 413 in the defence of Marseilles against Athaulf ( Ataulfus), attested as tribune in Africa from AD 416/17, perhaps praepositus limitis; from AD 423 comes Africae. As he acted independently, he was suspected time and again of disloyalty to  Valentinianus III, and this led to military conflicts in 427-429; publicly confirmed by the emperor as comes in 429. At the same time B. was accused of having invited the Vandals into the country so as to defend his own position; he …

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…

Eutropius

(731 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Author of a Lat. historical work Author of a Latin historical work, which according to its dedication was written at the instruction of Emperor Valens. The text indicates that the author had taken part in Julian's Persian campaign (10,16,1). In the intitulatio of a MS, he is referred to as a magister memoriae. It is still questionable whether he is identical with another Eutropius of the 2nd half of the 4th cent., whose name appears in other sources: possibly he was proconsul Asiae in 371/2, praef. praet. Illyrici in 380-1, and consul posterior in 387. The historical …

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Aurelianus

(953 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Aurelius A. Cos. suff. 180/182 AD Praetorian legate of Arabia under two Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. between AD 180 and 182 (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consular senator, executed around 217/18 AD Consular senator. His execution, demanded by the soldiers, was at first refused by Emperor  Macrinus (217-18) (Cass. Dio 78,12,4), but was probably carried out soon thereafter (Cass. Dio 78,19,1). PIR2 A 1425. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Imperator Caes. L. Domitius A. Augustus Born…

Anthemius

(604 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis 405-414 AD Probably sent to Persia as an envoy in AD 383, comes sacrarum larg. (eastern region) in AD 400; magister officiorum (eastern region) at the latest in AD 404, cos. 405; at the latest from AD 406 patricius. A. gained considerable political influence in his role as praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 405-414, initially under Arcadius, later under the underage Theodosius II. He was a Christian, but looked upon pagan culture with an open mind [1. 82 f.]. Through the building of walls, he took…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Constantius

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] C. I, Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Roman Emperor (Augustus) AD 305-306 or M., Caesar (293-305) and Augustus (305-306), in later times nicknamed Chlorus; born c. 250 in what would become Dacia Ripensis. On the staff of the Illyrian soldier emperors, first protector, then tribunus. Under the rule of  Carinus attained equestrian rank as praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). It seems likely that even before 293 (thus Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), and in fact before 289, when he was praefectus praetorio to  Maximianus, he had to divorce h…

Caesarius

(708 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] [1] Official, 4th cent. AD Hailing from Cilicia, C. was educated in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 1399). He was a brother of  Alypius (Jul. Ep. 9-10). In AD 362-363, he was possibly vicarius Asiae (Lib. Ep. 764; 1384). After the death of  Iulianus, he became comes rerum privatarum (Cod. Theod. 10,1,8) and gained great influence at the court of Valens (Lib. Ep. 1449; 1456). As praef. urbis Constantinopolitanae, C. was taken prisoner by the usurper Procopius in 365 (Amm. Marc. 26,7,4; Zos. 4,6,2) and possibly executed (Them. Or.7,92c). He was the recipient of…

Asterius

(429 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀστέριος; Astérios). [German version] [1] Cretan epiclesis of Zeus A Cretan epiclesis of Zeus, attested to only in the Byzantine writers; it arose through euhemeristic interpretation of the myth of Asterion [1]. In contrast to this view, evolutionist interpretations regarded him the origin of that hero. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography H. Schwabl, s.v. Zeus I, RE 10 A, 281. [German version] [2] Sophis from Cappadocia Sophist from Cappadocia, belonged to the circle of students of Lucianus of Antioch (martyr AD 312) from whom came the spokesmen for the …
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