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Hesperius

(70 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Decimius Hilarianus H., son of  Ausonius. One of those family members who profited from Ausonius' proximity to emperor  Gratianus [2]. In AD 376/7 documented as proconsul Africae and 377-380 as Praetorian Prefect in the West with varying jurisdiction. Corresponded with Symmachus (Epist. 1,75-88). Epist. 19/20 Mondin (= 16/18 Prete) by Ausonius are addressed to him. Probably a Christian [1]. PLRE 1,427f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling, 298f.

Gomoarius

(79 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Of Germanic descent; tribunus scutariorum in AD 350.; a follower of  Vetranio, whom he betrayed to  Constantius [2] II. In 360 magister militum of the emperor  Iulianus; when the emperor removed him from office in the following spring, G. switched his allegiance to Constantius II. In 365/366, G. served as magister militum of the usurper  Procopius, in whose defeat G.'s switch of allegiance to  Valens played a decisive part. PLRE 1, 397f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Edobicus

(60 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Franc, mag. militum of  Constantinus [3] III, whom he freed from Valencia in AD 407. E. tried to win the Germani as allies. During his attempt to relieve the usurper who was besieged in Arelate, he was defeated by  Constantius [6] III and Ulfila, and was killed while attempting to escape in 411. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Valens

(948 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Rival emperor to Gallienus, 3rd cent. AD As proconsul of Achaia, V. had himself proclaimed rival emperor to Gallienus in AD 261 in Macedonia. Although he defeated Piso, who was sent there against him (PIR2 C 298), he was soon murdered by his own troops (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,4; Amm. Marc. 21,16,10; SHA Tyr. Trig. 19; 21; SHA Gall. 2,2 f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2 227  PIR V 7  PLRE 1, 929 f. [German version] [2] Flavius Valens Eastern Roman emperor AD 364-378. Born in 321 in Cibalae (Illyria), of lowly origins and without a prof…

Olympias

(742 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀλυμπιάς; Olympiás). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neoptolemus Daughter of Neoptolemus [2], born in about 375 BC. She was not given the name O. until after the Olympic victory of Philippus II in 356 BC (cf. Plut. Mor. 401b). She married Philip in 357 as his fifth wife (Ath. 13,557b) and bore him Alexander [4] the Great (356) and Cleopatra [II 3]. The birth of a successor elevated O.'s status, but there is no evidence of any political influence. After Philip's marriage to Cleopatra [II 2] she fled to…

Praetextatus

(153 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Roman cognomen ('boy dressed in a toga praetexta'). Epithet of L. Papirius [I 23] P. and in the Sulpicii family (Sulpicius); widespread in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Vettius Agorius P. Praefectus Urbi AD 265-267 c. AD 320-384. Having started his career as quaestor and praetor, he became corrector Tusciae et Umbriae before 362, as a favourite of Iulianus [11] proconsul Achaiae in 362/4, praefectus urbi in Rome in 365/7, then a praetorian prefect of Illyria, Italia, and Africa; designated a consul in 384; several times …

Pelagius

(849 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος; Pelágios). [German version] [1] Schoolfellow and friend of Libanius, high-ranking official Fellow student and friend of Libanius, in AD 357; represented his home city Cyrrhus (in Euphratensis) before Constantius [2] II in Italy; in about 382 he was consularis Syriae; he died in 393, a non-Christian (it is to him that Lib. Epist. 1325 and 1334 are addressed). PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Epic poet and historian, 5th cent. Silentiarius ( Silentiarii ), distinguished epic poet and probably also historian…

Dardanus

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Harrauer, Christine (Vienna) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Schwerteck, Hans (Tübingen) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δάρδανος; Dárdanos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus Son of Zeus, who of all his mortal sons loved this one the most (Hom. Il. 20,215; 304), and either a mortal mother or the Atlantid Electra/Elektryone (Hes. fr. 177/80 MW; Hellanic. FGrH 4 F 23). Eponymous hero of the  Dardani, who lived on Mt Ida, and in Homer are linked with the Trojans and frequently synonymous with them. D. is the progenitor of the Trojan ruling dynasty. Possibly mentioned in the Ilioupersis, he originates from Arcadia, where he is supposed to have been born in a cave (Ilioupersis fr. 1 PEG I; Str. 8…

Honorius

(738 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] (Grand)father of emperor Theodosius I Listed in [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 48,1 as father of the emperor Theodosius I, but may have been his grandfather. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Elder brother of Theodosius I Elder brother of Theodosius I, probably related to  Maria, whose daughter was  Serena; both were taken into the emperor's household. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [3] Flavius H. West Roman emperor 393-423 AD, puer nobilissimus West Roman emperor AD 393-423, was born on 9 September AD 384 …

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Eusebius

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…

Nepos

(785 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen, epithet of Q. Caecilius Metellus N. and his son Roman cognomen (‘grandson’) to distinguish a boy from his father and grandfather of the same name. Epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. and his homonymous son [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [German version] [2] Cornelius N. Biographer and historian, 1st cent. BC ( c. 100-24 BC) represents the dynamic of intellectual culture in Rome during the 1st cent. BC. He hailed from the Transpadana region and was an equestrian. N. …

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Gratianus

(770 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Father of the emperors Valens and Valentinianus The father of emperors  Valens and  Valentinianus. Born near Cibalae. A man of low origins who rose in the military: between AD 305 and 316 he was protector domesticus in Salona, in about 321 tribunus in Illyricum, later comes in Africa and Britain. In 350/1 he was as a private person host to the usurper  Magnentius and was punished with confiscation of his property. His sons arranged for an honourable memorial. PLRE 1, 400f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Flavius G. West-Rom. emperor AD 367-383 Roman emp…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Syagrius

(213 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Procos. Africae in 379 AD In AD 379 procos. Africae, in 380-382 praetorian prefect, in 381 cos. The assignment of offices is debatable, since S. [2] became prominent at the same time. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius, 4th cent. In AD 369 dishonourably dismissed as a notarius; in 379-381 (?) magister officiorum, in 381 city prefect in Rome, in 382 cos. Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography Clauss, 192 f.  A. Demandt, Die Konsuln der Jahre 381 und 382…

Ex(s)uperantius

(56 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] see  Iulius E. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. Galliarum AD 424/5 Originally from Poitiers; after internal unrest in AD 417, he tried to restore order in Aremorica. In 424/5 praef. praet. Galliarum, he was beaten to death during a mutiny in Arelate. PLRE 2, 448. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Victorius

(100 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Gallo-Roman friend of Sidonius Apollinaris. Although Catholic, from about AD 471 he was in the service of the Arian Visigoth Euricus. There is evidence of his holding the titles dux and comes . He had responsibility super septem civitates in Aquitania I and after the latter was subjugated by the Visigoths from c. 475 also for Augustonemetum (Clermont). V. came to prominence by endowing churches. His autocratic tendencies and his dissipated way of life made him suspect, so that he ran away to Rome, where he was murdered (in 479?) (PLRE 2, 1162-1164, no. 4). Leppin, Hartmut…

Maiorianus

(312 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Iulius M. Emperor in the West in 457-461 AD In AD 457-461 emperor in the West. He served under Aetius [2] in Gaul, retired to his estates and probably served as comes domesticorum at least with Valentinianus III. With Ricimer he brought about the overthrow of Avitus [1]. The East Roman emperor named him military commander and on 28 December 457 he was declared to be Augustus (on the date [1. 180-188]; against a step-by-step appointment [1. 185f.]). He emphasized the support for him in the Senate and military …
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