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Denck, Hans

(291 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Heybach – Nov 1527, Basel). After completing his studies at Ingolstadt (1517–1519), where he was formatively influenced by humanism, ¶ Denck acted as a school rector in Nuremberg from 1523, upon the recommendation of J. Oecolampadius. The ideas of A.B. v. Karlstadt and T. Müntzer strengthened his criticism of the Nuremberg Reformation, which, in his opini…

Campanus, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Maaseik – after 1574). After studying at Cologne and a stay in the duchy of Jülich, Campanus came to Wittenberg c. 1527/1528. His exclusion from the debate at the Colloquy of Marburg (Disputations, Religious: I) marked the beginning of his conflict with the Wittenberg Reformers, which was intensified in 1530 when he disputed the divinity of the Holy Spirit. He soon returned to Jülich, where a warrant for his arrest (at first not executed) was issued in 1532. His Göttlicher und Heiliger Schrift … Restitution (1532) expounded his anti-trinitarian th…

Walch

(485 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] 1. Johann Georg (Jun 17, 1693, Meiningen – Jan 13, 1775, Jena). Walch began studying classical languages and ancient history in 1710 at Leipzig, where he delivered his first lectures on classical philology as Magister. In 1718 he was appointed professor of philosophy and antiquities at Jena; in 1719 rhetoric was added and poetry in 1722. In 1724, even before he received his doctorate in theology (1726), he was appointed associate professor of theology. In 1728 he was made full professor. He took the lectures of hi…

Hilten, Johann

(151 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Johannes Herwich aus Ilten; 1425, Ilten – c. 1500, Eisenach). Hilten enrolled at Erfurt in 1445 and received his Bacc. artium in 1447. Later he entered the Franciscan order. In 1463 he moved to Livonia, where in 1472 be became lector and preacher in Dorpat (modern Tartu). He was held under claustral house arrest on various charges in Weimar and Eisenach after 1477. He is mentioned in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession (Augsburg Confession, Apology of the; art. 27; BSLK, 378), because the Wittenberg Reformers thought that in the context of his apo…

Entfelder, Christian

(186 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (died after 1547). From 1526 to 1528, he was the preacher of an anabaptist congrega-¶ tion (Anabaptists) in Eibenschütz (Bohemia). From 1529 he worked in Strassburg, where he had contact with H. Bünderlin and K. v. Schwenckfeld. Realizing that anabaptism was coming under threat, he clearly distanced himself from the movement. No later than 1536, he became adviser to Albert of Prussia in Königsberg. Af…

Professio fidei Tridentinae

(248 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] At the request of French cardinals – who wanted to ensure the Roman Catholic faith of bishops, in view of the royal right of nomination in France – the decrees of Trent from the council’s 24th and 25th sessions in 1563 prescribed for bishops and other clergy the declaration of an expanded confession of faith upon assuming office, and for academic teachers the regular swearing of an oath of Catholicity. The text, presumably written in the context of the Roman Inquisition, was promulgated by Pope Pius IV in the bull Iniunctum nobis (Nov 13, 1564). ¶ In it, the Niceno-Constant…

Occam, William of

(2,010 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence (Venerabilis Inceptor; c. 1285, Ockham, England – Apr 9, 1347, Munich) I. Life William probably studied a reduced program of arts at the Franciscan college in London before proceeding in 1308 to study theology at the University of Oxford. Here he delivered his lectures on the Sentences from 1317 to 1319. It is not clear whether, or to what extent, William was involved in the disputes between the mendicant orders and the university. In any case, he came under sharp philosophical attack, especially from t…

Robespierre, Maximilien

(380 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (May 6, 1758, Arras – Jul 28, 1794, Paris), lawyer. In 1789 Robespierre became a member of the États-Généraux and of the National Assembly (France : III, 1.i), as deputy of the Third Estate. He occupied a central function for the course of the French Revolution, as spokesman for the Jacobin Club. In 1792 he became one of the leaders of the radical Montagnards in the National Convention; his attacks on the king and the monarchy became increasingly outspoken. In July 1793 he became a member of the Co…

Maistre, Joseph Marie, Comte de

(247 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Apr 1, 1753, Chambéry – Feb 26, 1821, Turin). After studying law in Turin from 1769 to 1772, Maistre practiced law in his home town, and in 1773 became a freemason (Freemasons). His career reached its peak in 1788 when he became senator of Savoy. The military encroachment of the French Revolution into his home town in 1792 forced him to emigrate the following year to Lausanne. This destabilizing experience made him a political advocate of the Restoration ( Considérations sur la France, 1796). The theological basis for this was a strong sense of providence. Mai…

Lardner, Nathaniel

(178 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Jun 6, 1684, Hawkhurst, Kent – Jul 24, 1768, Hawkhurst, Kent). After his formation at a Presbyterian academy in London from 1699 to 1703 and studying in Utrecht and Leiden, Lardner was an independent preacher from 1709, and a private chaplain and tutor from 1713. While officiating as an assistant preacher in London (from 1721), he worked on his main publication, a work of popular enlightenment entitled The Credibility of the Gospel History (17 vols., 1727–1757), which was based on a series of lectures. The basic notions of historical criticism impart…

Adso

(79 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 910–992), reforming abbot of Montier-en-Der (from 967/68) and St. Bénigne (c. 982–985). Adso composed lives of various saints and (between 949 and 954) an influential summary of the Antichrist tradition in biographical form. In it, Adso categorized the West Frankish Carolingians (to whom his patron Gerberga was related by marriage) as the heirs of Rome in God's plan of salvation. Volker Leppin Bibliography CCCM 45, 1976 R. Konrad, De ortu et tempore Antichristi, 1964.

Bible of the Poor,

(288 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] Biblia pauperum, was the name given to the Bible abbreviations for preaching purposes in the late Middle Ages. Technically “Bible of the Poor” denotes a specific, primarily pictorial work of monastic provenance. As far as it can be reconstructed, its earliest, originally anonymous exemplar was written in the southeastern German language area in…

Pacca, Bartolomeo

(270 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1756, Benevento – Apr 19, 1844, Rome) came from a noble family and was doctor of canon and civil law. In 1785 he was consecrated titular bishop of Damietta, and in the same year, without the recognition of the archbishop of Cologne, took office in the city as papal nuncio. Against episcopalism (II; Ems, Congress of), he vigorously represented the papal position. As nuncio in Lisbon (1794/1795–1802) he fought with equal vigor (having been made a cardinal in 1801) against P…

Staël, Anne Louise Germaine de

(80 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] Baroness de Stäel-Holstein (Apr 22, 1766, Paris – Jul 14, 1817, Paris). As an exile during the French Revolution, Mme. de Staël was the central figure of a European network of communication. Refracting the ideas of J.-J. Rousseau through the lens of early German Romanticism, she wrote in criticism of the social conventionality restricting women, and preached the perfecting of humanity in history. Volker Leppin Bibliography C. Blennerhassett, Madame de Staël, 1889 (Eng.).

Henry of Kalkar

(169 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1328, Kalkar – Dec 20, 1408, Cologne). Henry of Kalkar received the M.A. in Paris in 1357, and later the Bacc.theol. Renouncing already acquired benefices, he entered the Charterhouse of Cologne (Carthusians) in 1365. From 1368 to 1396, he held leading positions in charterhouses near Arnhem and Roermond, in Cologne, and near Strasbourg, while also officiating as visitor of his province from 1375 ¶ onward. In performing the spiritual dimension of these offices, he developed a devotional theology of monastic discipleship which aimed to achieve …

Heidelberg, University of

(493 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] The university founded in 1386 by Rupert I, Elector Palatine, was initially staffed by scholars forced out of Paris and Prague because of ecclesial and national opposition. The founding rector Marsilius of Inghen guided Heidelberg on the path of a moderate via moderna; from 1452, the via antiqua shared equal rights. The scholastic manner of instruction (Scholasticism) was supplemented after 1456 with the humanist (Humanism: III), but not profoundly altered. Brought to the Lutheran Reformation in 1558 by Ottheinrich (1556–1559)…

Sudermann, Daniel

(137 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1550, Liège – after 1630, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). Though born into a Catholic family, Sudermann came into contact with Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Anabaptism early on. Having worked as a private tutor, after 1585 he served as an educator of the nobility at the Bruderhof in Straßburg. He had already come in contact with the ideas of K. v. Schwenckfeld, some of whose writings he began publishing in 1584. He dated his own attraction to Schwenckfeld’s teaching from a conversion expe…

Wilhelm von Ockham (Ehrenname: Venerabilis Inceptor; ca.1285 Ockham – 9.4.1347 München)

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[English Version] I. Leben W. hat sein artes-Studium wohl in reduzierter Form am Ordensstudium der Franziskaner in London absolviert, ehe er wohl 1308 zum Theologiestudium an die Universität Oxford wechselte. Hier hielt er 1317–1319 seine Sentenzenvorlesung. Ungeklärt ist, ob und wieweit W. in die Streitigkeiten zw. den Bettelorden und der Universität involviert war. Jedenfalls kam es bald zu scharfen philos. Attacken, v.a. durch den früheren Kanzler der Universität Johannes Lutterell (gest.1335). Sie hatten 1323 eine Untersuchun…

Til

(126 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[English Version] Til, Salomo(n) van (26.12.1643 Wees – 31.10.1713 Leiden). Nach Studium in Utrecht und Leiden (J. Coccejus) wurde der reformierte T. 1666 Prediger in Huisduinen. Nach Zwischenstationen kam er 1683 nach Dordrecht, wo er ab 1684 neben dem Pfarramt auch eine Professur an der Schola Illustris versah. 1702 wechselte er nach Leiden. Im Mittelpunkt seiner Tätigkeit stand die philol. gelehrte Exegese der atl. Propheten. Der von Coccejus übernommenen Föderaltheologie ebnete er durch Aufnahme…

Staël

(74 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[English Version] Staël, Anne Louise Germaine, Baronin de S.-Holstein (22.4.1766 Paris – 14.7.1817 ebd.). S. war als Exulantin während der Franz. Revolution Zentralgestalt eines eur. kommunikativen Netzwerkes. Lit. kritisierte sie, in Brechung Rousseauscher Ideen (J.-J. Rousseau) durch den Einfluß der dt. Frühromantik, die Frauen beschränkende Wirkung gesellschaftlicher Konventionalität und propagierte eine Vervollkommnung der Humanität in der Gesch. Volker Leppin Bibliography Ch.Blennerhassett, Madame de S., 1889.
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