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Liturgical Studies

(4,045 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich
[German Version] I. History – II. Liturgical Studies Today I. History The German term Liturgik (“liturgics”) was first used by the 16th-century Catholic mediation theologian G. Cassander; in the 19th century, Catholics began to use it for the historical, critical, systematic, and practical theory of Christian worship. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the use of liturgics in this sense to the mid-19th century. The term Liturgiewissenschaft (“liturgical studies”) was introduced by C.A. Baumstark in 1919 and R. Guardini in 1921, modeled on W. Dilthey's term Geisteswissenschaf…

Social History

(4,845 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Theory In its scientific exploration of the past, all historiography aims at a synthesis in the sense of a valid overview of what has gone before. At best, however, the quest can succeed only paradigmatically and typically, because any reconstruction of an histoire totale is doomed to failure. Nevertheless historiography cannot abandon the ven-¶ ture of viewing history (History/Concepts of history) as a whole, because otherwise the incalculable mass of detail would rule out any interpretation of historical processes. Therefore the history of the historical disciplines has been marked by the repeated emergence of new critical “schools,” which have accused the then dominant views of deficiencies in particular areas, which they have undertaken to overcome with new questions and methods. Among them – if we ignore certain precursors – is the social history that emerged in the 1960s. …


(384 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] Physical and emotional injuries are commonly called traumas (from the Gk word for “wound”). In a narrower sense, traumas are psychological wounds that manifest themselves as long-term impairments, especially after the experience of war, a catastrophe, or an accident, as well as after crimes of violence (rape, sexual abuse, including abuse within the family). If the traumatic event (after an initial period of latency) leads to obtrusive flashbacks within six months, with fear of re…


(13,995 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Cancik, Hubert | Seidl, Theodor | Schnelle, Udo | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Et al.
[German Version] (Biblical Scholarship, Hermeneutics, Interpretation) I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Greco Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Biblical Scenes in Art – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Religious Studies Exegesis (for etymology see III below) is the explanation, interpretation, or analysis of sacred or otherwise religiously central documents by experts; it enables and encourages the access of a …

Theory and Praxis

(4,249 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche | Figal, Günter | Westhelle, Vítor | Herms, Eilert | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences The distinction between theory as a consistent linguistic or symbolic system of ordered statements about a par-¶ ticular subject area or phenomenal domain and practice (praxis) as technical action to produce quantifiable phenomena in an experiment, or at least observation against the background of a theory, is fundamental to the modern natural sciences, although the precise definition of the relationship between the two is disputed and is addressed by the philosophy of science. Usually the relationship between theory and praxis is described by saying that theory prov…

Müller, Alfred Dedo

(170 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1890, Hauptmannsgrün, Vogtland – Aug 4, 1972, Leipzig), pastor from 1917, and from 1930 professor of practical theology in Leipzig. As early as 1934, Müller cooperated with Leipzig psychologists in order to include spiritual care in the curriculum. First influenced by religious socialism (L. Ragaz), and later, more decisively, by the Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft, Müller's Grundriß

Nature and Grace

(1,974 words)

Author(s): Saarinen, Risto | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology The words nature and grace are used (primarily in Catholic theology) to explain the relationship between philosophical anthropology (I) and the reality of God’s salvation, conceived theologically. This discussion, peculiar to the West, normally involves only the nature of human beings, not that of other beings. The language of medieval Aristotelianism, especially that of Thomas Aquinas, decisively shaped the…

Word of God

(7,795 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Levin, Christoph | Hahn, Ferdinand | Krötke, Wolf | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] See also Heavenly voice, Memra, Revelation. …


(411 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] refers to the process of constituting or preserving a whole and is employed in the humanities primarily as a sociological and educational-psychological category. Consequently, in the field of theology, integration is a term with primary relevance for practical theology. Conceptually, in particular the third of the meanings of the Latin adjective integer (1. sound, incorrupt, 2. new, 3. whole) has come to dominate the current notion of integration, while the Latin substantive, integratio, primarily connoted “renovation.” The modern conc…


(5,316 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard | Leppin, Volker | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | de Boutemard, Bernhard Suin | Knoblauch, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition Sociology is an empirical social science; its field of study encompasses the relatively enduring forms and structures of social action (Action, Science of ) and the resultant social units, from entities like the family and kinship group and social groups to large-scale organizations and states. The word itself is an artificial combination of Latin socius (“companion, fellow”) and Greek logos (“word, truth,” in an extended sense “knowledge”). It appears for the first time in vol. IV of the Cour…

Krause, Gerhard

(199 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] (Jun 2, 1912, Ückermünde, Pomerania – Aug 25, 1982, Loccum), was deeply influenced by his studies under R. Hermann in Greifswald and by D. Bonhoeffer's preachers' seminary in Finkenwalde. He became campus minister in 1937, performed his military service and was a prisoner of war (1939 to 1955), officiated as pastor in Bünde, Westphalia, and was professor of practical theology in Bonn from 1962 to 1977. Until his death, Krause was one of the two editors of the Theologische Realenzyklopädie ( TRE), which began appearing in 1977, and a member of the commission entrusted with the revision of the Luther Bible. Krause authored works on the history of the Reformation, hermeneutics, hymnology, and other areas. His edition of the text volume of Praktische Theologie (1972) and his works on A. Hyperius were of lasting significance.…


(23,549 words)

Author(s): Zinser, Hartmut | Kaiser, Otto | Lindemann, Andreas | Brümmer, Vincent | Schwöbel, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Art – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. It is fundamentally true that God is not an object of religious studies, since God – as theology teaches – cannot be made an object of empirical scientific study. Religious studies can only address the concepts that human beings have expressed concerning their God (or gods: God, Representations and symbols of) in history and society, along with such phenomena as cultic worship, and the implications of these concepts as they shape human lives individually and collectively. When the study of religion deals with God per se, it oversteps the limits of a secular science and turns itself into theology or even a cryptotheology lacking the requirements of any theology – subjectively faith and revelation, objectively association with a social reality like the church. These observations do not address the question whether a god (or gods) exists apart from the concepts of his followers; the study of religion can neither prove nor refute an existence of God independent of the concepts of his followers. Such proposed …


(8,725 words)

Author(s): Prohl, Inken | Morgen, Michèle | Stock, Konrad | Steinmann, Michael | Herms, Eilert | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics – IV. Philosophy – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Judaism I. History of Religion The concept of love describes a relationship of affection, tenderness, or devotion between human beings and be…

Cultural Elites and the Church

(773 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] In a broad sense, the educational dilemma of the church is the consequence of the modern tension between religion and science, first apparent in the 18th century. In 1799 F.D.E. Schleiermacher defended religion from its cultured despisers, who had enthusiastically adopted aesthetic and moral forms of self-assurance while educating the general populace in a religion to which they themselves were “totally indifferent” (Schleiermacher, 32). As the middle class grew during the 19th century, this ¶ tendency led to education in a cultural religion indep…

Practical Theology

(3,867 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] I. Definition In the Middle Ages, it was common to call theology practica in contrast to speculativa (e.g. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae I/I q. 4f.; but contrast Luther, ¶ WA.TR, 153). In German Protestantism today, the term practical theology ( Praktische Theologie) denotes a discipline within academic theology that was established in the early 19th century. Introduced encyclopaedically by F.D.E. Schleiermacher for the “proper approach to dealing with all the functions that come under the heading of church leadership” ( Kurze Darstellung des theologische…

Doerne, Martin

(401 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] (Mar 20, 1900, Schönbach, Saxony – Sep 2, 1970, Göttingen) was a practical theologian of Lutheran provenience who may be categorized in the sphere of influence of “Word of God theology” (K. Barth), but who sought to take into account influences from Berneuchen theology (W. Stählin, A.D. Müller, O. Haendler) and empirical aspects of the chu…

Haendler, Otto

(141 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] (Apr 18, 1890, Komsomolsk [Ger. Löwenhagen], Russia – Jan 12, 1981, Berlin). After pastoring in Gumtow, Prignitz and Stralsund, Haendler was director of the seminary in Stettin (1931–1935), pastor in Neuenkirchen near Greifswald (1935–1949) and professor of practical theology at Greifswald (1945–1951) and East Berlin (1951–1959). Marked by ¶ the depth psychology of C.G. Jung and the Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft, he became an early proponent of pastoral psychology in Germany before its broad acceptance after 1970. His 1941 textbook Die Predigt [The sermo…

Natur und Gnade

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Saarinen, Risto | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[English Version] I. Fundamentaltheologisch Mit dem Begriffspaar Natur und G. erläutert v.a. die kath. Theol. das Verhältnis zw. der philos. Anthropologie (: I.) und der theol. zu denkenden Heilswirklichkeit Gottes. Normalerweise wird in dieser abendländischen Diskussion nur die N. des Menschen behandelt, nicht das Wesen anderer Seiender. Der Sprachgebrauch des ma. Aristotelismus, insbes. bei Thomas von Aquin, hat die fundamentaltheol. Diskussion maßgebend geprägt. Nach Thomas hebt die G. die N. ni…

Theorie und Praxis

(3,910 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche | Figal, Günter | Westhelle, Vítor | Herms, Eilert | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[English Version] I. Naturwissenschaftlich Die Unterscheidung zw. Th. als einem widerspruchsfreien sprachlichen oder symbolischen System geordneter Aussagen über einen bestimmten Gegenstands- bzw. Phänomenbereich und P. als technischem Handeln zur Erzeugung von quantifizierbaren Phänomenen im Experiment, mindestens aber Beobachtung vor dem Hintergrund einer Th., ist für die modernen Naturwissenschaften konstitutiv, wenngleich die genaue Bestimmung des Verhältnisses beider umstritten und Thema der Wissenschaftstheorie ist. Üblicherweise werden Th. und P. s…


(4,760 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard | Leppin, Volker | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Suin de Boutemard, Bernhard | Knoblauch, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Die S. ist eine empirische Sozialwiss., deren Gegenstandsbereich die relativ dauerhaften Formen und Strukturen des sozialen Handelns (Handlungswissenschaft) und die daraus resultierenden sozialen Gebilde sind, von den gemeinschaftlichen der Familie/ Verwandtschaft und sozialen Gruppen bis zu den gesellschaftlichen der Organisationen und Staaten. Der Begriff S. ist ein Kunstwort, das sich aus lat. socius (»Gefährte, Mitmensch«) und griech. logos (»Wort, Wahrheit«, im …
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