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Corporate law

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
commercial lawtrading companies  Early modern European corporate law predominantly concerned companies in which commercially active merchants or shareholders were personally liable. We can distinguish two primary types of trading company in the 16th and 17th centuries: the commenda, which derived from maritime trade, was normally dedicated to carrying out a single commercial transaction, such as a trading voyage overseas (Trade, Long-distance). The company was much more significant: it emerged from the need or desire that a manufacturing or merchant busin…
Date: 2019-10-14

Felicity

(893 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
Felicity (German, Glückseligkeit) as the purpose of a state (State, purpose of) is one of the key concepts of the German political theory of enlightened absolutism in the latter half of the 18th century. The felicity of the state and its subjects gave the state its purpose for existing and acting. Whereas in a medieval theological context felicity was viewed primarily as a positive goal to be achieved in the afterlife (Latin, beatitudo), it became the subject of philosophical-ethical and political-theoretical discussion in the early modern period, coming to be…
Date: 2019-10-14

Administrative judiciary

(762 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
An administrative judiciary ( Administrativjustiz) is the court-like review of measures taken by the police or the government outside the ordinary judiciary in the 19th century. Its roots lie in the  gute Policey (“good public order”) of the 18th century, whereby Policey cases were decided by Policey-Collegien, the so-called cameral judiciary (see Kameralprozess) After the administrative reforms at the beginning of the 19th century, the duties of gute Policey were assumed by the government. The administrative judiciary now consisted of court-like judicial i…
Date: 2019-10-14

Freedom of trade

(997 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionToday, the concept of freedom of trade is usually mentioned in connection with free enterprise (Industrial policy). In the 18th and 19th centuries, however, freedom of trade had its own distinct meaning: in Europe, it encompassed both the traditional rights of merchants and the liberal and pre-liberal understanding of the freedom of domestic and foreign trade (Trade, external).Louis Pahlow2. The absolutist-mercantilist stateAlthough calls for freedom of trade can be found already in political works of the 16th and 17th centuries, the concept …
Date: 2019-10-14

Law, faculty of

(933 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionLaw faculties were the administrative and knowledge-organizing elements (Faculty) of a university that were responsible for the training of jurists. Founded in the Middle Ages, they transformed in the early modern period under the influence of certain religious, political, and cultural movements. Across Europe, these trends led to the founding of numerous universities and, with them, faculties of law. Significant changes in the organization and instruction of law faculties can also be observed.Louis Pahlow2. Confessional and state influencesThe end of fait…
Date: 2019-10-14

Notary

(806 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionA notary’s job was to record, witness, or certify legal transactions of a public or private nature (Law). The presence of notaries thus presumes that a legal system relies on writing to a certain degree. Documents that had been certified by notaries were considered means of proof; in general, they enjoyed and still enjoy public credence, that is, their contents are regarded as correct until proven otherwise.Louis Pahlow2. Early modern periodAt the dawn of the early modern period, notaries were generally recognized in both the ecclesiastical and secular…
Date: 2020-04-06

Lawsuit

(785 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionA lawsuit occurs when a plaintiff initiates legal proceedings before a court of law seeking recourse against a defendant. In connection with the spread of scholarly Roman law across Europe (Ius commune), lawsuits were increasingly formalized and refined as remedies according to civil procedure.Louis Pahlow 2. Early modern developments In contrast to medieval law, in which official judicial authority had not yet asserted itself over vigilante self-help [7] (Feud), in the early modern period convening a court became the norm. Lawsuits (Latin  actio; German Klage, …
Date: 2019-10-14

Iura maiestatis

(892 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
Iura maiestatis (“rights of majesty”) is an early modern term for the sovereign rights of a ruler. Across Europe, in the 17th century, they became the focus of the philosophical and legal discussion concerning the state (State, general theory of); they were highly important as the organization of the early modern state took shape.Beginning in the 16th century, different kinds of iura maiestatis emerged across Europe from a comprehensive philosophical discourse of the state. The starting point was maiestas, which in the early modern period indicated not only the exalte…
Date: 2019-10-14

Land rights

(991 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionThe origins, transfer, and lapse of land rights in early modern Europe, that is rights pertaining to real estate – such as ownership (Property), easements, and mortgages – were shaped by Roman legal models (Ius commune). With respect to their formal nature, however, early modern influences can be increasingly identified. Two groups of rights, which may be summarized as rights of use and rights of exploitation, were the most important land rights across Europe.Louis Pahlow2. Rights of useUnder ius commune, so-called servitudes (Latin, servitutes, easements),…
Date: 2019-10-14

Lay judge

(818 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionLay judges differ from trained judges particularly in that they are not professionally trained jurists. Although the term “lay judge” does not appear in the legal sources or in the laws of the early modern period, they enjoyed varying importance as judges,  Schöffen in German-speaking territories, and jurors. The significance of lay judges as members of  juries in the Anglo-American legal world was incomparably greater than in Continental Europe during the early modern period (Common law) [2].Louis Pahlow2. Decline in the early modern periodIn Germany, the sep…
Date: 2019-10-14

Allgemeines Landrecht für die preußischen Staaten (ALR)

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. Origin and scope The Prussian ALR of 1794 was the result of efforts commencing also in other German territories around 1750 to modernize the legal system according to the ideas of enlightened absolutism ( Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch = ABGB; Codex Maximilianeus Bavaricus Civilis). The ALR is one of the most prominent codifications of the Early Modern Period. A start was made under Frederick William I and was succeeded by works especially during the reign of Frederick II. After a first version by the Grand Chancellor Samuel von…
Date: 2019-10-14

Intellectual property

(2,180 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionIntellectual property is a natural law concept that since the late 18th century has been understood to protect the rights of authors and inventors along the same lines as property rights. The theory of intellectual property (German geistiges Eigentum) met with considerable resistance in 19th-century Germany, which lives on today widely in German jurisprudence. In France ( propriété intellectuelle) and the anglophone legal world, the view of intellectual property as similar to property rights has prevailed.Louis Pahlow2. The era of privilegesThe legal prote…
Date: 2019-10-14

Limitation (law)

(805 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionLimitation refers to the effect of time on a legal right that thereby is reduced with respect to its existence or its enforceability. Limitation is based on the condition that someone has failed to assert his rights within a certain time-frame. It appears both in private law and criminal law, as well as in other areas of law, such as administrative law.Louis Pahlow2. Private lawWith the reception of ius commune, its traditional principles of usucaption were also developed, that is, the acquisition of ownership by someone in possession of a thing (P…
Date: 2019-10-14

Citizenship

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. Definition Citizenship designates membership in a state and thus is related to the early modern state-building process. The roots of citizenship, however, lie in the subject-ruler relationship of the early modern period.The term “nationality” in some cases is synonymous with citizenship; in others, until about 1850, it designated a somewhat reduced form of citizenship (see below, 2.). While English and French both use the word “nationality” (French,  nationalité) to indicate citizenship (cf. nation, nationalism), the German term Nationalität (and similarly  Nation) me…
Date: 2019-10-14

Polizeistrafrecht

(749 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. Einführung Unter P. versteht man denjenigen Bereich obrigkeitlicher bzw. staatlicher Sanktionen, der bis weit ins 19. Jh. hinein in Europa die Befolgung der Anordnungen der ›guten Policey‹ (Polizei) sicherstellen sollte. Das P. beruhte institutionell darauf, dass die Polizei-Behörden seit dem Ende des 17. Jh.s innerhalb der Aufgaben der ›guten Policey‹ auch solche der Rechtsprechung wahrnahmen; sie konnten sog. Polizeistrafen verhängen, die insbes. im 19. Jh. in Polizeistrafgesetzbüchern geregelt waren.Louis Pahlow2. Frühe NeuzeitInfolge der Etablierung der ›gute…
Date: 2019-11-19

Immobiliarrechte

(828 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. Allgemein I., also Rechte an Grundstücken – wie das Eigentum, Dienstbarkeiten oder Grundpfandrechte –, wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Entstehung, ihrer Übertragung oder ihres Erlöschens im nzl. Europa von röm.-rechtlichen Vorbildern geprägt (Gemeines Recht). Hinsichtlich ihrer formalen Erfassung sind jedoch zunehmend nzl. Einflüsse festzustellen. Die größte Bedeutung unter den I. hatten in ganz Europa zwei Gruppen von Rechten, die als Nutzungs- und Verwertungsrechte zusammengefasst werden können.Louis Pahlow2. NutzungsrechteEinen außerordentlich weiten Bereich d…
Date: 2019-11-19

Notar

(709 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionDie Aufgabe des N. bestand und besteht darin, im privaten oder öffentlichen Auftrag Rechts-Handlungen zu protokollieren, zu beglaubigen oder zu beurkunden. Das Vorhandensein eines Notariats setzt also einen gewissen Grad der Verschriftlichung des Rechtssystems voraus. Die vom N. beglaubigten Urkunden galten und gelten u. a. als Beweis-Mittel; ganz allgemein genossen und genießen sie öffentlichen Glauben, d. h. ihr Inhalt gilt als richtig, bis er widerlegt wird.Louis Pahlow2. Frühe NeuzeitMit dem Beginn der Nz. waren N. sowohl im geistlichen als auc…
Date: 2019-11-19

Patrimonialgerichtsbarkeit

(682 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
Die P. war eine besondere Form privater Gerichtsbarkeit, die meist mit dem Besitz eines Gutes (lat. patrimonium), also mit Grund und Boden, verknüpft war. Sie konnte für Zivil- und Strafsachen zuständig sein.1. Frühe NeuzeitSeit dem MA hatten die Landesherren die ihnen zustehende Gerichtsbarkeit vielfach an Städte, Klöster, Stifte oder Gutsherrschaften verliehen. In Kontinentaleuropa konnten daher in der untersten Instanz private Gerichtsbarkeiten bestehen, die als dingliche Berechtigung mit dem Grundbesitz verbunden waren. Die P. entwickelte sich in der Frühen …
Date: 2019-11-19

Gesellschaftsrecht

(2,739 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Pahlow, Louis
1. Naturrecht 1.1. BegriffDas Staats- und Sozialmodell des nzl. europ. Naturrechts und damit die vom 17. Jh. bis in die erste Hälfte des 19. Jh.s maßgebliche Staats- und Gesellschaftstheorie beruhte auf der Vorstellung, alle menschlichen Institutionen seien rational als Gesellschaften zu deuten, die durch Verträge zustande kommen. Dementsprechend wurden insbes. die Ehe, das Verhältnis zwischen Eltern und Kindern sowie zwischen Herrschaft und Gesinde, die Familie als aus den genannten Gesellschaften zusammengesetzte Gesellschaft, die Kir…
Date: 2019-11-19

Medizinalpolizei

(2,050 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis | Zare, Antje
1. Seuchenpolizei und staatliche Gesundheitsfürsorge 1.1. Instrument staatlicher GesundheitspolitikIn der Nz. rückte die Gesundheit der Bevölkerung in das Interessenfeld des Staates. V. a. im 18. und 19. Jh. fand unter dem Begriff der M. eine umfangreiche Diskussion über Aufgaben und Instrumente einer staatlichen Gesundheitsfürsorge statt. Den Forderungen der Theorie trugen die Staaten Europas z. T. durch unterschiedliche Maßnahmen Rechnung, etwa Medizinalordnungen oder Verbesserung der mediz. Versorgung der Bevölkerung.Ausgehend von der Kameral- und Polizei-Wiss…
Date: 2019-11-19
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