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Verjährung

(709 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. BegriffUnter V. versteht man die Einwirkung der Zeit auf ein Recht, das dadurch etwa in seinem Bestand oder in seiner Durchsetzung beeinträchtigt wird. V. gründet sich darauf, dass jemand binnen einer gewissen Frist seine Rechte nicht geltend macht. Sie findet sich außer im Privatrecht und im Strafrecht auch in anderen Rechtsgebieten, u. a. dem Verwaltungsrecht.Louis Pahlow2. PrivatrechtMit der Rezeption des römisch-kanonischen Rechts wurden auch dessen traditionelle Grundsätze der Ersitzung weiterentwickelt, d. h. eines Eigentums-Erwerbs des Besitzers einer Sach…
Date: 2019-11-19

Polizeistrafrecht

(749 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. Einführung Unter P. versteht man denjenigen Bereich obrigkeitlicher bzw. staatlicher Sanktionen, der bis weit ins 19. Jh. hinein in Europa die Befolgung der Anordnungen der ›guten Policey‹ (Polizei) sicherstellen sollte. Das P. beruhte institutionell darauf, dass die Polizei-Behörden seit dem Ende des 17. Jh.s innerhalb der Aufgaben der ›guten Policey‹ auch solche der Rechtsprechung wahrnahmen; sie konnten sog. Polizeistrafen verhängen, die insbes. im 19. Jh. in Polizeistrafgesetzbüchern geregelt waren.Louis Pahlow2. Frühe NeuzeitInfolge der Etablierung der ›gute…
Date: 2019-11-19

Immobiliarrechte

(828 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. Allgemein I., also Rechte an Grundstücken – wie das Eigentum, Dienstbarkeiten oder Grundpfandrechte –, wurden hinsichtlich ihrer Entstehung, ihrer Übertragung oder ihres Erlöschens im nzl. Europa von röm.-rechtlichen Vorbildern geprägt (Gemeines Recht). Hinsichtlich ihrer formalen Erfassung sind jedoch zunehmend nzl. Einflüsse festzustellen. Die größte Bedeutung unter den I. hatten in ganz Europa zwei Gruppen von Rechten, die als Nutzungs- und Verwertungsrechte zusammengefasst werden können.Louis Pahlow2. NutzungsrechteEinen außerordentlich weiten Bereich d…
Date: 2019-11-19

Notar

(709 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionDie Aufgabe des N. bestand und besteht darin, im privaten oder öffentlichen Auftrag Rechts-Handlungen zu protokollieren, zu beglaubigen oder zu beurkunden. Das Vorhandensein eines Notariats setzt also einen gewissen Grad der Verschriftlichung des Rechtssystems voraus. Die vom N. beglaubigten Urkunden galten und gelten u. a. als Beweis-Mittel; ganz allgemein genossen und genießen sie öffentlichen Glauben, d. h. ihr Inhalt gilt als richtig, bis er widerlegt wird.Louis Pahlow2. Frühe NeuzeitMit dem Beginn der Nz. waren N. sowohl im geistlichen als auc…
Date: 2019-11-19

Patrimonialgerichtsbarkeit

(682 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
Die P. war eine besondere Form privater Gerichtsbarkeit, die meist mit dem Besitz eines Gutes (lat. patrimonium), also mit Grund und Boden, verknüpft war. Sie konnte für Zivil- und Strafsachen zuständig sein.1. Frühe NeuzeitSeit dem MA hatten die Landesherren die ihnen zustehende Gerichtsbarkeit vielfach an Städte, Klöster, Stifte oder Gutsherrschaften verliehen. In Kontinentaleuropa konnten daher in der untersten Instanz private Gerichtsbarkeiten bestehen, die als dingliche Berechtigung mit dem Grundbesitz verbunden waren. Die P. entwickelte sich in der Frühen …
Date: 2019-11-19

Commercial law

(2,220 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionCommercial law (Latin,  ius mercatorum), as part of private law, consists of all law related to the merchant class in the early modern period. Commercial law includes both rules pertaining to the professional organizations of merchants, their privileges, commercial jurisdiction, and the law of bankruptcy, as well as commercial police law and international law. Private commercial law, however, including for example exchange law (Bill of exchange), corporate law, and insurance, has stood at the forefront of the European commercial law tradition.Louis Pahlow2. T…
Date: 2019-10-14

Independence, judicial

(836 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionA distinction must be drawn between the objective and personal independence of a judge. While a judge is bound to observe only the law and statutes (Law [statute]) in arriving at his objective rulings, his personal independence guarantees the integrity of his official position. In an extended sense, both aspects are prerequisites of a just, fair judgment.Louis Pahlow2. The early modern periodJudges can be found as dependent officials in many territories at the beginning of the early modern period. In keeping with the theory of sovereignty dev…
Date: 2019-10-14

Insurance

(3,370 words)

Author(s): Denzel, Markus A. | Pahlow, Louis | Mittag, Jürgen
1. Commercial history 1.1. Definition and historical originsInsurance is the elimination of individual financial risk by distributing it to a community with similar risk. This is done by the payment of individual contributions or premiums into a common fund, the total sum of which is determined by the amount of risk to be covered. The commercial insurance industry facilitates the creation of risk communities, the collection of premiums, and the disbursal of insurance benefits as services. Together with…
Date: 2019-10-14

Instantia austraegalis

(835 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
The legal institution of  instantia austraegalis comprised courts of arbitration that existed alongside the traditional judiciary (Jurisdiction) or were set above it so as to resolve disputes between specific noble rulers and later the individual states of the German Confederation.1. The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation Instantia austraegalis derived from the desire for a peaceful means of resolving conflicts between equal-ranking members of imperial estates, which arose in the medieval era of feuds. Despite the fact that the instantia austraegalis had to apply both  i…
Date: 2019-10-14

Corporate law

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
commercial lawtrading companies  Early modern European corporate law predominantly concerned companies in which commercially active merchants or shareholders were personally liable. We can distinguish two primary types of trading company in the 16th and 17th centuries: the commenda, which derived from maritime trade, was normally dedicated to carrying out a single commercial transaction, such as a trading voyage overseas (Trade, Long-distance). The company was much more significant: it emerged from the need or desire that a manufacturing or merchant busin…
Date: 2019-10-14

Felicity

(893 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
Felicity (German, Glückseligkeit) as the purpose of a state (State, purpose of) is one of the key concepts of the German political theory of enlightened absolutism in the latter half of the 18th century. The felicity of the state and its subjects gave the state its purpose for existing and acting. Whereas in a medieval theological context felicity was viewed primarily as a positive goal to be achieved in the afterlife (Latin, beatitudo), it became the subject of philosophical-ethical and political-theoretical discussion in the early modern period, coming to be…
Date: 2019-10-14

Freedom of trade

(997 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionToday, the concept of freedom of trade is usually mentioned in connection with free enterprise (Industrial policy). In the 18th and 19th centuries, however, freedom of trade had its own distinct meaning: in Europe, it encompassed both the traditional rights of merchants and the liberal and pre-liberal understanding of the freedom of domestic and foreign trade (Trade, external).Louis Pahlow2. The absolutist-mercantilist stateAlthough calls for freedom of trade can be found already in political works of the 16th and 17th centuries, the concept …
Date: 2019-10-14

Law, faculty of

(933 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionLaw faculties were the administrative and knowledge-organizing elements (Faculty) of a university that were responsible for the training of jurists. Founded in the Middle Ages, they transformed in the early modern period under the influence of certain religious, political, and cultural movements. Across Europe, these trends led to the founding of numerous universities and, with them, faculties of law. Significant changes in the organization and instruction of law faculties can also be observed.Louis Pahlow2. Confessional and state influencesThe end of fait…
Date: 2019-10-14

Notary

(806 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionA notary’s job was to record, witness, or certify legal transactions of a public or private nature (Law). The presence of notaries thus presumes that a legal system relies on writing to a certain degree. Documents that had been certified by notaries were considered means of proof; in general, they enjoyed and still enjoy public credence, that is, their contents are regarded as correct until proven otherwise.Louis Pahlow2. Early modern periodAt the dawn of the early modern period, notaries were generally recognized in both the ecclesiastical and secular…
Date: 2020-04-06

Lawsuit

(785 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionA lawsuit occurs when a plaintiff initiates legal proceedings before a court of law seeking recourse against a defendant. In connection with the spread of scholarly Roman law across Europe (Ius commune), lawsuits were increasingly formalized and refined as remedies according to civil procedure.Louis Pahlow 2. Early modern developments In contrast to medieval law, in which official judicial authority had not yet asserted itself over vigilante self-help [7] (Feud), in the early modern period convening a court became the norm. Lawsuits (Latin  actio; German Klage, …
Date: 2019-10-14

Iura maiestatis

(892 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
Iura maiestatis (“rights of majesty”) is an early modern term for the sovereign rights of a ruler. Across Europe, in the 17th century, they became the focus of the philosophical and legal discussion concerning the state (State, general theory of); they were highly important as the organization of the early modern state took shape.Beginning in the 16th century, different kinds of iura maiestatis emerged across Europe from a comprehensive philosophical discourse of the state. The starting point was maiestas, which in the early modern period indicated not only the exalte…
Date: 2019-10-14

Land rights

(991 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionThe origins, transfer, and lapse of land rights in early modern Europe, that is rights pertaining to real estate – such as ownership (Property), easements, and mortgages – were shaped by Roman legal models (Ius commune). With respect to their formal nature, however, early modern influences can be increasingly identified. Two groups of rights, which may be summarized as rights of use and rights of exploitation, were the most important land rights across Europe.Louis Pahlow2. Rights of useUnder ius commune, so-called servitudes (Latin, servitutes, easements),…
Date: 2019-10-14

Lay judge

(818 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. IntroductionLay judges differ from trained judges particularly in that they are not professionally trained jurists. Although the term “lay judge” does not appear in the legal sources or in the laws of the early modern period, they enjoyed varying importance as judges,  Schöffen in German-speaking territories, and jurors. The significance of lay judges as members of  juries in the Anglo-American legal world was incomparably greater than in Continental Europe during the early modern period (Common law) [2].Louis Pahlow2. Decline in the early modern periodIn Germany, the sep…
Date: 2019-10-14

Medizinalpolizei

(2,258 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis | Zare, Antje
1. Epidemic policy and state healthcare 1.1. As an instrument of state health policyIn the early modern period, the health of the population moved into the state’s field of interest. In the 18th and 19th century, under the term “medical policy” ( Medizinalpolizei), an extensive discussion took place concerning the responsibilities and means of state healthcare. European states met the demands raised in this theoretical discussion with a variety of different measures, as for instance the introduction of a medical code or the improveme…
Date: 2019-10-14

Intellectual property

(2,180 words)

Author(s): Pahlow, Louis
1. DefinitionIntellectual property is a natural law concept that since the late 18th century has been understood to protect the rights of authors and inventors along the same lines as property rights. The theory of intellectual property (German geistiges Eigentum) met with considerable resistance in 19th-century Germany, which lives on today widely in German jurisprudence. In France ( propriété intellectuelle) and the anglophone legal world, the view of intellectual property as similar to property rights has prevailed.Louis Pahlow2. The era of privilegesThe legal prote…
Date: 2019-10-14
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