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Anti-Semitism/Anti-Judaism

(9,075 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph | Schäfer, Peter | Schaller, Berndt | Thierfelder, Jörg | Frey, Christofer
[German Version] I. Definitions and Problems - II. Greco-Roman Antiquity- III. New Testament (Primitive and Early Christianity) - IV. Christian Antiquity to the Beginning of the MiddleAges - V. The Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period - VI. German Anti-Semitism in Recent History - VII. Systematic Theology I. Definitions and Problems The term “anti-Semitism” in its narrowest sense relates to a racist ideology that emerged in France and Germany in the last decades of the 19th century and de…

Rabbi

(1,285 words)

Author(s): Jacobs, Martin | Wilke, Carsten | Schaller, Berndt
[German Version] I. Terminology The Hebrew title רַבִּי/ rabbî is derived from the nominalized adjective רַב/ rab, “great, of high rank,” which in postbiblical Hebrew took on the meaning “master” (Rav) in contrast to a slave or student/disciple ( m. Sukk. 2:9; m. Giṭ. 4:4; m. ʾAbot 1:3). The honorific rabbi (“my master/teacher”) became a title, associated with the names of Palestinian men of learning (e.g. Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph), while Rav was used for Babylonian rabbis. Rabbi is also found as a name for Judah ha-Nasi. The Aramaic form rabban (“our master”) is associated with some…

Christian-Jewish Cooperation

(603 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt
[German Version] From the days of the Early Church, relations between Christianity and Judaism were dominated for the most part by theological hostility and practical enmity (Anti-Semitism/Anti-Judaism). The relationship was marked by contempt and persecution on the part of Christians, aversion and resistance on the part of Jews (Judaism and Christianity). Before the 19th century, only occasional encounters questioned the traditional antagonism and emphasized matters in…

Judaism and Christianity

(5,219 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt | Lindemann, Andreas | Meyer, Michael A. | Beintker, Michael
[German Version] I. Problems of Terminology – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament and Primitive Christianity – IV. Early Church – V. Middle Ages to the Present – VI. The Church and Judaism Today I. Problems of Terminology The terminological distinction between Judaism and Christianity (Ἰουδαϊσμός – Χριστιανισμός) made its first appearance at the beginning of the 2nd century, initially in the Ignatian Epistles (Ign. Magn. 10.3; Phld. 6.1). It was a product of Christian usage, borrowed from the contrast between Judaism and Hellenism (Ἑλληνισμός) current in Jewish circles;…

Sedrach, Apocalypse of

(209 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt
[German Version] ( Apoc. Sedr.), apocalyptically conventionalized didactic text, mostly on anthropological themes, named after the biblical Sedrach/Shadrach (LXX and Θ Dan 1:7; 3:12 – corruption of Esdras [Ezra]?). It records Sedrach’s rapture to the third heaven, where he argues with God about the causes of human suffering, the power of the devil, Adam’s sin, the frailness of the body, and the length of sinners’ penance. The date, source, and even the exact compass of the apocalypse are unclear. The text survives fragmen…

Jeremias, Joachim

(347 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt
[German Version] (Sep 20, 1900, Dresden – Sep 6, 1979, Tübingen). Jeremias earned his Dr.phil. in 1922, his Lic.theol. in 1923, and gained his Habilitation in New Testament at Leipzig in 1925. During his teaching career, he was tutor at the Theological Seminary of the Brethren in Herrnhut (1922; Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II), lecturer at the Herder Institute in Riga (1924), associate professor and director of the Institutum Judaicum in Berlin (1928), professor at Greifswald (1929) and Göttingen (1935) before becoming emeritus in 1968. Jeremias was one of the outstanding…

Jeremiah, Writings

(455 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt
[German Version] I. Epistle of Jeremiah – II. Paraleipomena Jeremiou I. Epistle of Jeremiah The Epistle of Jeremiah (‘Επίστολη ᾿Ιερεμίου/ Epístolē Ieremíou, Epistula Jeremiae, Ep Jer) purports to be a copy of a letter sent by the prophet Jeremiah to the exiles in Babylon (Babylonian Exile). The Greek letter, probably composed originally in Hebrew or Aramaic between 330 and 180, is treated by the Septuagint as an independent literary entity; the Vulgate instead integrates it into the book of Baruch as ch. 6. Closely …