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(491 words)

Author(s): Schwarke, Christian
[English Version] . S. oder »Sozialer Liberalismus« bez. eine Vielzahl hist. wie geographisch unterschiedlicher Bewegungen, deren Gemeinsamkeit darin besteht, die liberale Tradition des 18.Jh. mit den sozialen Herausforderungen moderner, industrialisierter Gesellschaften zu verbinden. Eine einheitliche Definition existiert nicht, der Kern des S. ist jedoch stets die Forderung eines mäßigen staatl. Eingriffs in die Wirtschaft, um krasse soziale Differenzen in ihren Folgewirkungen zu mildern. Dabei …

Social Liberalism

(536 words)

Author(s): Schwarke, Christian
[German Version] The term social liberalism covers a variety of movements in various periods and places; all have combined the liberal tradition of the 18th century with the social challenges of modern industrial societies. ¶ There is no generally accepted definition, but the core of social liberalism has always been the same: the demand for moderate state intervention in the economy to mitigate the consequences of glaring social differences. In contrast to the ideas of socialism, the priority of the individual over society is emphasized. The ideas and programs of social liberal…


(2,027 words)

Author(s): Jammer, Max | Schwarke, Christian
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Natural Sciences – III. Dogmatics I. Philosophy In philosophy, the concept of matter is used only in a metaphysical/ontological sense, in order to underlay spatial-temporal phenomena with a substratum. Thus, pre-Socratic natural philosophers already postulated the existence of a hýlē (ὕλη, Lat. materia, orig. “forest,” “wood”). For Thales, this was water, for Anaximander the apeiron (“indefinite”), for Anaximenes air, for Heraclitus fire, and for Democritus indivisible atoms moving across empty space. P…