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Societies, Theological

(534 words)

Author(s): WilhelmGraf, Friedrich
[German Version] The roots of scientific societies go back to the learned societies of the Enlightenment. In the secular form of private associations, scholars began joining in specialized societies in the post-Napoleonic period (Vormärz); they wished to articulate their interests, influence public opinion, and organize discussions of central questions in their fields. Communication within these societies took the form of congresses, circular letters, and specialized journals. Historians of cultur…

Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund

(360 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] (DEKB; German Association of Protestant Churches). The end of ecclesiastical authority in the hands of the territorial princes and the …

Confessionalism

(636 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] The origins and the history of the concept have scarcely been investigated. The earliest known German attestations date from the

Confession Cultures

(566 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] The relatively recent concept of confession cultures belongs to the terminology of modern cultural studies, where it is employed in conjunction with …

Neo-Protestantism

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich | Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] I. Church History Talk of a “new” or “modern” Protestantism surfaced sporadically c. 1800, but did not achieve a firm foothold until the hardening of deep religious and cultural divides between “liberal theologians” (Liberal theology), mediation theologians (Mediation theology), theological Hegelians (Hegelianism), and Neo-Lutheran confessionalists (Neo-Lutheranism) during the 1830s. The neologism neo-Protestants was initially used in the late 1830s as a pejorative description of Protestant theologians who interpreted the Reformation as a revolution against ecclesiastical authority ushering in the modern history of freedom and declared the individual’s religious freedom of conscience and the political freedom of the individual citizen (Freedom of belief) to be the essence of Protestantism. In the 1840s, the noun …