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Psalmody

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle) | Zimmermann, Heidy (Basle) | Wolfram, Gerda (Vienna)
Haas, Max (Basle) [German version] I. General Remarks (CT) Psalmody is not a genre; instead it is a term commonly used in musicology to refer to a style of unison singing found in the Western and Eastern Churches. It encompasses several aspects: (1) Psalmody is a counterpart to the concept of music. If music is considered to be the visual form by means of which sound phenomena are studied, then psalmody refers to a specific way in which such phenomena are played. (2) Psalmody is based for the most part o…

Metrics

(892 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle)
Haas, Max (Basle) [German version] I. Literature (CT) see Versification …

Music

(14,471 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Bernhard, Michael | Sachs, Klaus-Jürgen | Steinhauser, Ulrike | Et al.
Haas, Max (Basle) I. History of Ideas (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) …

Psalmody

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Zimmermann, Heidy (Basle) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Definition Psalmody (Greek ψαλμῳδία/ psalmōidía; Latin psalmodia) is the singing of psalms; in medieval Latin, it is a technical term for a particular psalm tone (a recitation formula). In music, psalmody is used more generally as a collective term for all musical genres whose texts are largely taken from the Psalter (Psalms). Its significance is even greater if one considers that the psalms are seen as the most important model in the development of liturgical poetry. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] II. Jewish culture In the temple, psalms were…

Modes, Musical theory of

(595 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle)
[English version] Scales, i.e. melodies with defined spaces (intervals) between single tones, were handed down to the Middle Ages through the Institutio musica by Boethius. The material in this tradition is Greek in origin. It was, however, already incorrectly understood and interpreted by Boethius. On the basis of such text parts, a theory of keys was developed during the time that Gregorian chant was adapted. Today this theory is encompassed systematically under the heading of liturgical keys. (overviews: [1; 4]). …

Proportion

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Architecture 'Proportion' is a modern technical term in the archaeological research of monuments. In the description of a structure, a proportion represents the ratio of two lines or the ratio of the sides of a rectangular area, in the mathematical sense of a division (x:y). The proportions of a building are determined based on its detailed measurement. Increasingly precise and generally binding procedures for obtaining and evaluating the relevant data have been developed by W. Dörpfeld; K. Koldewey; O. Puchstein i.a. since the late 19th century. The extent to which particular proportions observed or obtained from a structure by modern researchers were of actual significance in antiquity, and were thus intentional, remains a matter of dispute. Unlike the indication of individual measurement data, there is generally no reference to the use of proportion in ancient documents. On the basis of regular usage, it may be assumed that particular basic principles of proportion were used intentionally, for example in the plan and frontal projectio…