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(2,145 words)

Author(s): Klauck, Hans-Josef | Satran, David | Bovon, François | Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. New Testament Apocrypha from Nag Hammadi I. Terminology Etymologically, “apocryphal” means “hidden, secret,” while “pseudepigraphal” indicates that a document has been falsely attributed to an author. In the modern period, the usage of both terms has been burdened by confessional preconceptions, since the extent of the canon (Bib…

Acts of Andrew

(167 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[German Version] ( Acts And.). The Acts of Andrew recounts the missionary journeys of the apostle Andrew from Pontus to Achaia. The theme of his preaching, which is accompanied by healings and exorcisms, is a world-denying and ascetic form of Christianity. His conversion of Maximilla, the wife of the Roman governor Aegeas, enrages the latter. Facing crucifixion at Patras, he sings the praises …

Apocryphal Acts

(893 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[German Version] I. Form and Genre – II. Literature I. Form and Genre In terms of form the Apocryphal Acts (AA) resemble the canonical Gospels, especially John, rather than the Acts of the Apostles. Like Jesus in the Gospels, the respective apostle introduces himself as a mediator of divine revelation. At the end of his ministry, like Jesus, he endures martyrdom (crucifixion for Andrew, Peter and P…

Hebrews, Gospel of the

(307 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[German Version] A Gospel of the Hebrews is mentioned by Papias (Eus. Hist. eccl. III 39.17) and Hegesippus (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 22.8) and is cited by representatives of the Alexandrian school, Clement ( Stromata, II 9.45; IV 14.96), Origen ( Comm. Jo. II 12; Hom. Jer. XV 4), and Didymus ( Comm. Ps. 33 [34].1). It is the document of a Jewish Christian community, probably from Egypt. It must be differentiated from both the Gospel of the Egyptians and the Gospel of the Ebionites (Ebionites, Gospel of the). Jerome frequently cites a Gospel of the Hebrews read by the Nazoreans, a Jewish-Christ…

Luke, Gospel of

(1,234 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
1. Author As the language of the Gospel of Luke indicates, its author came from educated pagan circles, probably in the North Aegean. At the time of writing he had become a Christian and belonged to a group of missionaries a generation after the death of Peter and Paul. His work, which may date to about 80–90, is evidently that of a historian of the day (Historiography 2), a convert (Conversion 1) anxious to defend the faith, and an evangelist with a zeal to impart it. The author aimed his work at…

Ascension of Christ

(782 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
1. Luke is the only NT author to tell the story of the ascension (which is mentioned in Barn.  15:9 and Gos. Pet.  9:35–42, as well as in the Old Latin codex Bobiensis [MS k] at the beginning of Mark 16:4). There are two short accounts, whose surprising differences can be explained by their respective literary functions. The first account, at the end of Luke (24:50–53), focuses on Jesus blessing his disciples (note the repetitions in vv. 50 and 51) and parting from them at the end of his life. The disciples, who feel protected, fall down before the risen Lord in worship …

Thomas, Gospel of

(216 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] The GT is part of one of the Coptic MSS found in Nag Hammadi in 1945 (NHCod II,2). It is a collection of 114 sayings of Jesus; a part was already known in Greek from three Oxyrhynchus papyri (1, 654 and 655; Oxyrhynchos B.). Half of the sayings have parallels in the canonical or synoptic gospels, others (about 20) are cited by the Church Fathers. The GT purports to be a secret doctrine of Jesus that he entrusted to his twin brother Judas Thomas [1]. As far as the form is concerned…


(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …


(189 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[English version] Das Th. ist Teil einer der 1945 in Nag Hammadi gefundenen koptischen Hss. (NHCod II,2). Es ist eine Slg. von 114 Sprüchen Jesu; ein Teil war schon vorher griech. in drei Oxyrhynchos-Papyri (1, 654 und 655; Oxyrhynchos B.) bekannt. Die Hälfte der Sprüche hat Par. in den kanonischen, bes. den synoptischen Evangelien, andere (ca. 20) sind von den Kirchenvätern zitiert. Das Th. gibt sich als geheime Lehre Jesu aus, die dieser seinem Zwillingsbruder Judas Thomas [1] anvertraute. Formg…


(6,203 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φίλιππος). Die maked. Könige Ph. [3-7], darunter Ph. [4] II., Ph. [7] V.; Apostel und Evangelist Ph. [28]; Philosophen und Dichter Ph. [29-32]. [English version] [1] Spartanischer Flottenführer 411 v. Chr. Spartiat, Befehlshaber in Miletos 412 v.Chr. (Thuk. 8,28,5), wurde 411 mit zwei Trieren nach Aspendos geschickt, um dort mit Unterstützung des Tissaphernes die phoinikische Flotte zum Kampf gegen Athen zu bewegen (Thuk. 8,87), teilte aber dem naúarchos Mindaros bald mit, seine Mission werde ergebnislos sein (Thuk. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesischer Krieg Welwei, Karl-Wilhe…