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(1,253 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Andreas (Dec 14 or 19, 1496 or 1498, Gunzhausen – Oct 17, 1552, Königsberg [today Kaliningrad, Russia]), Reformer of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) and center of a violent controversy over his doctrine of justification. Osiander matriculated at Ingolstadt in 1515, where he learned Greek and Hebrew and was influenced by Humanism and especially by J. Reuchlin and the Kabbalah. In 1520 he was ordained to the priesthood; in the same year, he was employed to teach Hebrew by the Augustinian Herm…

Frecht, Martin

(211 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (1494, Ulm – Sep 14, 1556, Tübingen). Frecht began studying in Heidelberg in 1514, was awarded the M.A. in 1517, the Lic.Theol. in c. 1529, and was reader ( Lektor) of Holy Scripture in Heidelberg from 1529 to 1531. Having participated in Luther's Heidelberg Disputation (II), he received an appointment as preacher in Ulm following the implementation of the Reformation in 1531. In 1533, he became the successor of the deceased K. Sam and assumed the leader-¶ ship of the church in Ulm. In spite of conflicts with the magistrate and quarrels with S. Franck and …

Anrich, Gustav Adolf

(160 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1867, Runzenheim, Alsace – Nov 13, 1930, Tübingen), church historian. He was pastor in Lingolsheim, Alsace (1894–1901); he gained his habilitation and became professor of church history at Strasbourg in 1894, and became professor of church history in 1900, and university professor in 1914. He became professor in Bonn in 1919 and in Tüb…

Schnepf (Schnepff), Erhard

(320 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1495, Heilbronn – Nov 1, 1558, Jena), began his studies in 1509 in Erfurt, then went to Heidelberg in 1511; after receiving his M.A. in 1513, he studied theology (Bacc.theol. 1518) and then law. It is likely that he was a participant in Luther’s Heidelberg disputation in 1518. In 1520 he was appointed to a position in Weinsberg but was expelled in 1522 for his Lutheran leanings. He was given refuge by Dietrich v. Gemmingen at Castle Guttenberg on the Neckar and in 1524 wa…

Alber, Matthäus

(298 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] , (Dec 4, 1495, Reutlingen – Dec 1, 1570, Blaubeuren), the reformer of Reutlingen. Alber began his studies in 1513 in Tübingen, where Melanchthon was lecturing, and went on to Freiburg i.Br. in 1520. In 1521, he began to preach in Reutlingen; from the outset he espoused church reform. Hostility from outside (investigations by the bishop of …

Oetinger, Friedrich Christoph

(394 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (May 2 or 6, 1702, Göppingen – Feb 10, 1782, Murrhardt), son of a town clerk. Oetinger attended the monastic schools of Blaubeuren and Bebenhausen, then from 1722 to 1727 studied theology at Tübingen. From 1731 to 1738, with intervals of travel, he was a tutor at the Tübingen Stift (Tübingen: II). He became a pastor in 1738 in Hirsau, in 1743 in Schnaitheim, in 1746 in Waldorf; then dean in 1752 in Weinsberg, in 1759 in Herrenberg, and in 1766 prelate in Murrhardt. Oetinger’s earl…

Christopher of Württemberg

(300 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (duke; May 12, 1515, Urach – Dec 28, 1568, Stuttgart). The vicissitudes of the reign of his father Duke Ulrich (1487/1503–1550) defined Christopher's childhood and youth. Ulrich's problematic relationship with his only son improved as the result of the mediation of Landgrave Philip of Hessen; Christopher turned to the Reformation at the end of the 1530s. On assuming office in 1550, Christopher faced severe problems caused by the unfortunate outcome of the Schmalkaldic War (Schmalkaldic League). He ¶ succeeded, however, in confirming the Reformation that had…

Gräter, Kaspar

(207 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (Gretter; c. 1501, Gundelsheim/Neckar – Apr 21, 1557, Stuttgart). Gräter began studies in Heidelberg in 1520, receiving the Bacc. artium in 1522. Around 1523, he was a tutor in the household of Dietrich of Gemmingen in Schloss (Castle) Guttenberg/Neckar; in 1526/27, he was chaplain to Duke Ulrich of Württemberg in Montbéliard; from 1527 to 1533, schoolmaster in Heilbronn; in 1534, he took the M.A. at Heidelberg and became pastor in Herrenberg, and 1537/38 in Cannstatt (Stuttgart-B…

Toussain (Tossanus)

(485 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Peter (Tossanus; 1499, St. Laurent, Lorraine – Oct 5, 1573, Montbéliard), canon in Metz after 1515. His attempt to preach the Reformation in Metz was unsuccessful. In 1535 Tossanus was charged with continuing the Reformation of the Württemberg count of Montbéliard (Mömpelgard), begun by G. Farel. The introduction of the Württemberg church order of 1536 and then the order of 1559 created difficulties, since Tossanus and his colleagues favored the Swiss Reformation. Negotiations le…

Sam, Konrad

(174 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (1483, Rottenacker, near Ehingen on the Danube – Jun 20, 1533, Ulm), studied in Tübingen and Freiburg im Breisgau, receiving his Lic.iur. from Tübingen in 1509. He became a preacher in Brackenheim, Württemberg, in 1513; in 1520 he was already in contact with Luther and J. Eberlin of Günzburg. Expelled from Brackenheim in 1524, he was called to the pulpit in Ulm by the council. An eloquent popular preacher, he succeeded in having the Reformation accepted despite the authorities’ he…


(1,779 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] I. Territory In the late 11th century, the castle name “Württemberg” (in the vicinity of Stuttgart-Rotenberg) was adopted by an aristocratic family that is first attested at this time. The counts of Württemberg (dukes from 1495 onward) began to build up a territory after the end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; by the early 16th century, it had acquired the appearance that it would retain until the radical changes of the Napoleonic period. The secularization of 1802/1803 and the mediati…

Maulbronn Monastery

(209 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (Baden-Württemberg), former Cistercian monastery (Cistercians), founded in 1138 at Eckenweiher (near Mühlacker) by Walter of Lomersheim, settled from Neuburg (Lower Alsace), and moved to the Salzach valley in 1147. Until 1504, it was administered by the Palatinate, then by Württemberg. In 1536, following the Reformation, it was closed, but it was resettled in 1548. In 1556, it was turned into a Protestant monastic school, but from 1630 to 1648 it became once more a Cistercian mona…