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Endo, Shusako

(193 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] (Mar 2

Missio Dei

(325 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] Missio Dei, “mission of God,” was introduced into the discussion by K. Hartenstein; the term advanced after the missions conference in Willingen (1952, Mission Conferences, German) and soon became a central concept in the theology of mission. In spite of many different emphases, it implies a new Trinitarian foundation for the understanding of missions (cf. opera and missiones in the context of…

Scientology, Church of

(664 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. In a series of organizations that followed each other in hectic succession, Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (Mar 13, 1911 – Jan 24, 1986) sought to capitalize on the unexpected boom of autonomous Dianetics groups that followed upon his self-help bestseller Dianetics, published in 1950, and preceded the Church of Scientology ¶ (as it began calling itself in 1954, initially in California; later Church of Sci…

Water

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. Throughout the world, water appears as the fundamental and original element of the world and life (cf. Earth, Fire, Wind), and thus plays an important role in religious protologies. In the form of a primordial ocean or subterranea…

Sealing

(283 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] Documents and personal property are protected by seals (Seal/Stamp). Sealing is designed to protect against unauthorized appropriation or access; it protects the authenticity and authority of the person affixing the seal (sender, owner) with symbolic power. The meaning of sealing in secular legal usage provides the background for the many references to sealing in religious contexts. Tatoos and amulets, for example, place their bearers in the numinous protective sphere of a deity o…

Great Commission, The

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Frankemölle, Hubert | Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. I. New Testament – II. Missiology I. New Testament Matt. 28:16–20 is often called the Great Commission. The text is a manifesto summarizing the entire Gospel. The speaker in the narrative is “Jesus” (“Ye/Ya …

Original State

(3,622 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Arneth, Martin | Dietz, Walter R.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies

Life Cycle

(2,663 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Wagner-Rau, Ulrike | Preul, Reiner | Goldberg, Sylvie Anne | Michaels, Axel
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Practical Theology – III. Ethics (Phases of Maturation) – IV. Judaism – V. Hinduism I. Religious Studies In almost all cultures and religions, a person apparently experiences his life not only as a straight line, but more as cyclically sequenced, more-or-less discontinuous phases with varied social status and role claims. The transition between these phases usually takes place as a controlled “growing process,” not only accompanied by so-called rites of passage, but in fact realized and dramatized by them (individually and collectively). In traditional religions, especially, femal…

Exorcism

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Figge, Horst H. | Kollmann, Bernd | Streib, Heinz | Mitchell, Nathan D. | Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. New Testament – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgy – V. Missiology I. Comparative Religion Exorcism, latinized from the Greek ἐξορκίζεῖν/ exorkízein, litera…

Life

(7,317 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Liess, Kathrin | Zumstein, Jean | Sparn, Walter | Gander, Hans-Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Fundamental Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Philosophy – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Natural Sciences – VII. Ethics I. Religious Studies Religious ideas and rituals focus fundamentally on life in this world and the next (Here and now, and the hereafter), i.e., coping with life and death (I…

Faith

(25,125 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Schulz, Heiko | Kaiser, Otto | Hooker, Morna D. | Jüngel, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Systematic Theology – V. Practical Theology – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam I. Terminology 1. Religious Studies a. As an emic linguistic term, “faith” is found not only in the context of the Christian West (cf. fides, foi, Glaube, etc.), but also in other religious traditions. The Sanskrit term śraddhā (cf. Pāli saddhā; Avestan zrazdā-) seems to represent an Indo-European etymological pendant to Lat. credo, as demonstrated by the possible reconstruction of Indo-Germanic * k'red-dhē-, “set one's heart o…

Myth and Mythology

(12,158 words)

Author(s): Segal, Robert Alan | Kamel, Susan | Müller, Hans-Peter | Graf, Fritz | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Fundamental Theology. – V. Missiology I. Religious Studies 1. The Concept and Its History Myth may be defined by either content or function. Defined by content, myth is a belief about something significant, such as the world or society. Defined by function, myth accomplishes something significant, such as explaining the world or supporting society. Most theories of myth are concerned with the function of myth, but many are also concerned with either the origin or the subject matter of myth. Mythology then refers to the system of different myths within a religion or culture. ¶ Nineteenth-century theories tended to view myth as a prescientific explanation of the physical wor…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics and Ethics – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Natural Sciences and Psychology 1. Evolution From the perspective of the natural sciences, the theory of evolution offers the most comprehensive framework for understanding human beings. It views the human species as a late product of a biogenetic process that began with the origin of life (VI) on earth some 3.8 billion …

Church

(19,399 words)

Author(s): Wenz, Gunther | Davis, Derek | Grünschloß, Andreas | Grappe, Christian | Schäfer, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. Early Christianity – IV. Early Church to the Reformation – V. Modern Era – VI. Orthodox Churches – VII. Asia, Africa, Latin America – VIII. Systematic Theology – IX. Ethics – X. Practical Theology – XI. Ecumenical Discussion – XII. Law I. Concept 1. Theology The loan-word, church, which in common parlance can mean both the Christian worship service and the building dedicated to its performance as well as the constituted social configuration of Christian faith in the sense of an institution and its representative organs, apparently stems from an adjectival derivative of the Greek substantive κύριος/ kýrios. While, in accordance with this etymology, the church concept in…