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Christology

(26,944 words)

Author(s): Karrer, Martin | Williams, Rowan D. | Hauschild, Wolf Dieter | Flogaus, Reinhard | Gunton, Colin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Primitive Christianity – II. History of Doctrine – III. Dogmatics – IV. Forms of Extra-ecclesial Christology I. Primitive Christianity 1. History of research and preliminary questions a.  The term Christology, which originated in the early 17th century, was coined for systematic reflection concerning Jesus Christ. Initially, conceptions and Christologies dealing with the salvation history of the whole Bible beginning with the Old Testament were as highly valued as the New Testament (cf. e.g. G.F. Händel's

Redemption/Soteriology

(10,262 words)

Author(s): Gunton, Colin | Filoramo, Giovanni | Spieckermann, Hermann | Popkes, Wiard | Hübner, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology All the major concepts in soteriology have biblical roots. Of central importance today is the notion of reconciliation (II), which bridges the theological and secular realms. The original Greek word καταλλαγή/ katallagḗ involves the notion of exchange, which was early taken to imply that Christ takes the place of the sinner before God, so realizing atonement (at-one-ment) and making expiation. Associated ideas include subs…

God the Son

(430 words)

Author(s): Gunton, Colin
[German Version] The biblical basis of the doctrine of the Son's particular divine personhood (Christology) is to be found in New Testament confessions (II), placing Jesus Christ alongside the Father and the Spirit (God the Father, God the Holy Spirit) and attributing to him creating and saving action. It is also to be found in the grounding of this in Old Testament portrayals of God's self-differentiating action in the world (Divine action). Explicit distinction of the second person of the Trinit…

Monotheism and Polytheism

(5,621 words)

Author(s): Ahn, Gregor | Müller, Hans-Peter | Hübner, Hans | Gunton, Colin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testame…

Creation

(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences …

God the Holy Spirit

(452 words)

Author(s): Gunton, Colin
[German Version] For Irenaeus the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) is fully divine as mediator of the Fathers creating and redemptive action (God the Father), but the tendency after him was to conceive the Spirit as subordinate, even sometimes the highest of the creatures. Against this, Athanasius and the Cappadocians (Cappadocian theology), while conceding that Scripture does not ambiguously teach the Spirit's full divinity, argued that as the sanctifier the Spirit was to be worshiped together with the Father a…

Incarnation

(1,365 words)

Author(s): Burger, Maya | Gunton, Colin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. History of Dogma and Dogmatics I. Religious Studies