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(7,917 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Guder, Darrell | Holmes, Stephen R
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe. Protestantism is a synoptic term for all the Christian churches and groups with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. The term embraces the Lutheran and Reformed confessional churches (Lutheranism, Reformed churches) that emerged directly from the Reformation as well as the Anabaptist movements, the Anglican Church (with some qualifications), and the churches and Free churches associated indirectly with the Reformation that came into being later …

Natural Religion

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter | Holmes, Stephen R.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The concept of natural religion has more than one sense. Its primary sense was fixed during the European Enlightenment (II, 2). Natural religion is opposed to revealed religion. It is a religion based on human reason alone, in contrast to a religion whose essential principles can be known only because they have been communicated through a divine message given to specific people at specific times and places. The principles of natural religion are held to be discoverable by all people at all times and places. This notion of natural religion can…

Justice and Righteousness

(8,833 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Klaiber, Walter | Höffe, Otfried | Holmes, Stephen R. | Anzenbacher, Arno | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics – V. Law – VI. Social Politics, Social Ethics – VII. Missiology – VIII. Islam I. Bible 1. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The concept of justice in the ancient Near East and the Hebrew Bible is basically one of connectivity. It designates the positive relation of the king to the gods and to his people, of the individual to the various collectives ranging from the family to the entire nation, of the deed to the doer's well-being,…

Righteousness/Justice of God

(5,846 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Spieckermann, Hermann | Klaiber, Walter | Holmes, Stephen R. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Human destiny. The human experience of existence holds both positive and negative events. Personal and structural processes involving violence and suffering are constants. The “horizon of justice and righteousness” allows us to surmise that the events that take place in the course of the world are not random but are turbulences on the surface of a fundamental order. Disorientation (anomie) does not destroy the need for security. These turbulences remain a question to which religious ¶ traditions and atheistic projections of Dasein offer ans…

Self-sufficiency of God

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Holmes, Stephen R.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of religion Self-sufficiency is the characteristic “a se,” to be self-caused or self-existing and is therefore regarded against the background of the aseity of God. To speak of God’s self-sufficiency is to say that his being (Divine essence) and his characteristics (Divine attributes) do not have an external reason or cause. In modern philosophical debate the view that God is self-caused, i.e. he is the necessary requirement of his own existence, is understood to follow …


(2,236 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Markschies, Christoph | Holmes, Stephen R.
[German Version] I. Church History Pelagius was an ascetic and theological writer from Britain. Before 410 he taught in Rome, and in 411/412, following the capture of Rome by the Goths, went to Palestine after a short stay in North Africa. His teaching, according to which the possibility of sinlessness was an essential part of human nature, provoked the criticism of Augustine and Jerome. This teaching had its setting in the pastoral care of members of the Roman elite. Pelagius stated that when one re…

Satisfaction, Doctrine of

(430 words)

Author(s): Holmes, Stephen R.
[German Version] The classic deployment of the concept of “satisfaction” in Christian soteriology (Redemption: III; VI) comes in Anselm of Canterbury’s Cur Deus Homo, where Anselm attempts to demonstrate the necessity of the incarnation and passion of God the Son. He asserts that willful injury done to another demands two acts of reparation if it is not to be ¶ punished: recompense to the value of the injury and an additional payment to “satisfy” the outrage of the injury being done. Boso, Anselm’s imaginary interlocutor, offers no argument against this …


(22,186 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. History of Liturgy – VII. Law – VIII. Missions – IX. Art I. History of Religion From the standpoint of the history of religion, baptism is not a general type of rite (Rite and ritual) but a lustration ritual that is carried out not only in Christianity but also in historically related religions such as …