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Gergovia

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later in Aquitania, west of the Elaver, 6 km south of  Augustonemetum on a high plateau that is hard to reach, today Gergovie. Besieged unsuccessfully by Caesar in 52 BC (Vercingetorix: Caes. B Gall. 7,34; Liv. Per. 107; Str. 4,2,3; Suet. Iul. 25; Polyaenus 8,23,9; Cass. Dio 40,35; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,152). Excavations of the large and the small camp and the connec…

Melpeia

(44 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μέλπεια; Mélpeia). Settlement in the Nomian mountains with a sanctuary of Pan Nomios, south of Lycosura (Arcadia). The exact location is unknown. (Paus. 8,38,11). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 178f. K. Kuruniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Νομίου Πανός, in: Praktika 1902, 1903, 72-75.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Dibio). An important centre where trade routes crossed at the confluence of the Saône and the Ouche, on the boundary between the civitates of the Lingones and the Aedui, now Dijon. The castrum Divionense described by Gregory of Tours in his History of the Franks 3,19 was built in the 3rd cent. near the road from Lyons to the Rhine frontier. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Frézouls, Les villes antiques de la France II, 1, 1988, 179-274 C. Rolley, s.v. D., PE, 278.

Bura

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Natural catastrophes | Oracles (Βοῦρα; Boûra). One of the 12 cities of Achaea. Hill settlement (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41), 40 stades from the sea (Str. 8,7,5). Destroyed by an earthquake in 373 BC, B. continued to exist, however, and had temples and sanctuaries at the time of Paus. (7.25.8f.). Two locations are discussed: the villages of Kastro [1; 2; 3] and Mamusia [4] on either side of the Buraïkos. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 133-140 2 Id., Neue Pelopo…

Phlius

(569 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia (Φλειοῦς/ Phleioûs, more rarely Φλιοῦς/ Phlioûs, ethnicon Φλειάσιος/ Phleiásios or Φλιάσιος/ Phliásios; Lat. Phleius). Town in northeastern Peloponnese, south west of Corinth (Str. 8,6,24; Paus. 2,13,3-8; Plin. HN 4,13; Ptol. 3,16,16). Today it is still called P., lying c. 2 km to the west of present-day Nemea in the foothills of the Tricaranon (present-day Koutsi) which juts out from the northeast into the alluvia…

Croceae

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Marble (Κροκέαι). Place in South Laconia (modern Κροκεές, Krokeés), famous because of the green porphyry ( lapis Lacedaemonius) quarried about 3 km to the south-east and highly prized in the Roman Imperial period. Attestation: Paus. 3,21,4; Str. 8,5,7; Plin. HN. 36,55; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrokea. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 203-207 M. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 54f. C. Le Roy, Lakonika, in: BCH 85, 1961, 206-215 G. A. Pik…

Entremont

(90 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian oppidum, main location of the Salluvii, 3 km north of Aix-en-Provence. In c. 2nd cent. BC two residential estates, the second of which surrounds the first without having destroyed it, proves the development of the town formation, which was stopped by the Romans between 124 and 90 BC. Ancient remains: town wall, roads, sanctuary (heroon?), sculptures, coins from Massalia, numerous crafts products. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Arcelin et al., Voyage en Massalie, 1990, 101-106 F. Benoît, Entremont, capitale celto-ligure des Salyens…

Coryphasium

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κορυφάσιον, Koryphásion). Rocky cape at the north end of the Bay of Navarino in Messenia; in the Classical period this was the site of the city of  Pylos with a sanctuary of Athena Coryphasia (Paus. 4,36,1f.). The port of Pylos is not identical to the Osman-Aga lagoon (Divari), but can be found in the Bay of Navarino. Evidence: Thuc. 4,3,2; 118,4; 5,18,7; Diod. Sic. 15,77,4; Str. 8,3,7; 21; 23; 27; 4,1f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, Re Suppl. 15. 201f. Pritchett 1, 1965, 6-29.

Hermion(e)

(315 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (epigraphically and literarily Ἑρμιών; Hermiṓn and Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē, ethnikon Ἑρμιονεῖς; Hermioneîs). Town in the eastern area of the Argolid, modern Ermioni, whose territory comprised the south-east of the area of Cape Thermisi 6 km east of H. to Cape Iri south of the Bedeni stream. H. owed its importance to the two well-protected harbours, separated by narrow, elong…

Lexovii

(77 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe on the western bank of the lower Sequana in the Gallia Celtica, later in the Gallia Lugdunensis. In Caesar's time they were part of the civitates Aremoricae. Main settlement: Noviomagus, modern Lisieux. Attestation: Caes. B Gall. 3,9; 7,75; Str. 4,1,14; 3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,2; 5. Inscr.: CIL III 3177-3182. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography C. Lemaitre, Noviomagus Lexoviorum, in: R. Bedon (ed.), Les villes de la Gaule lyonnaise (Caesarodunum 30), 1996, 133-166.

Meldi

(141 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People of Gallia Lugdunensis on the lower Matrona (Strab. 4,3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,11). The capital was Iatinon (Ἰάτινον, Ptol. 2,8,15; = Fixtinnum, Tab. Peut. 2,4), later called civitas Meldorum (Not. Galliarum 4,7) or Meldis (Ven. Fort. 3,27), modern Meaux. In 55/4 BC, Caesar had the M. build him ships for the expedition to Britain (Caes. BG 5,5,2); however, there was possibly another people by this name on the sea coast. Archaeological finds: coins.; water pipe. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3023f.; a thea…

Massalia

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Colonization | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars (Μασσαλία/ Massalía, Latin Massilia), modern Marseilles. [German version] A. Founding Around 600 BC the Phocaeans founded M. ( Colonization IV.), attracted by the potential resulting from the proximity of the Rhône and the rocky bay of Lacydon for the establishment and securing of a harbour (founding legends in Aristot. fr. 549 Rose = Ath. 13,576a; Iust. 43,3,4-13). M.'s early top…

Arausio

(185 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Punic Wars Town in  Gallia Narbonensis (cf. Liv. Ep. 67: 105 BC site of the Roman defeat in battle against the  Cimbri; Ptol. 2,10,8); the modern Orange. Shortly after 36 BC veterans of   legio II. founded the colonia Firma Iulia Secundanorum Arausio (CIL XII 3203), 7 km east of the  Rhodanus and south of the Aigues. 6th-cent. BC traces of the previous Celtic settlement lie 5 km to the south. A. was one of the main centres of the Cavares (Str. …

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Andecavi

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe in  Gallia Lugdunensis (on the lower Loire) with the main town of Iuliomagus (modern Angers sur la Maine; Caes. B Gall. 2,35,3; 3,7,2; 7,4,6: Andes; Plin. HN 4,107 and Oros. 6,8,7: Andicavi). In the Gallic rebellion of AD 21 under the leadership of  Iulius Sacrovir, they were the first to fight, together with the  Turoni, but were soon overpowered (Tac. Ann. 3,41). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Blanchard-Lemée et al., Recueil général des mosaïques de Gaule 2,4, 1991 M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Pheneus

(368 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (ὁ/ἡ Φενεός; ho/hē Pheneós, ethnikon Φενεάτης/ Pheneátēs or Φενικός/ Phenikós). City in Azania in northern Arcadia (Str. 8,8,2; 4; Paus. 8,13,6-22,1; Plin. HN. 4,20f.; 31,54; Diod. Sic. 15,49,5) in the north of a karst basin with no overground outlet drained by swallow-holes into the Ladon [1. 94, 99] where a shallow lake only periodically formed but with at times a catastrophically high water level (cf. Theophr. Hist. p…

Parparus

(143 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Πάρπαρος; Párparos). Site of the legendary battle of the mid-6th cent. BC between the Spartans and Argives over Thyreatis, in the Cynuria [1] to the south of the spur of what is now the Zavitsa [1; 2. 183-185; 6. vol. 3, 111-114; 6. vol. 7, 171]. The feast of the Parparonia was celebrated at Sparta in commemoration of this battle [3; 4. 194-199; 5. 260-262]. Evidence: Anecd. Bekk. 1408; Hsch. s.v. Π.; Ath. 15,678bc; Plin. HN 4,17. Inscriptions: IG V 1, 213; SEG 35, 302; 38, 333. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Moretti, Sparta alla metà del VI secolo. II. La…

Aremorica

(43 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Caesar (B. Gall. 5,53,6; 7,75,4; 8,31,4) means by A. (from the Celtic are-mori, along the sea) the coastal territories of the tribes between  Liger and  Sequana. According to Plin. HN 4,105,  Aquitania was formerly called A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lasion

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Aegira

(364 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Αἴγειρα; Aígeira). Town in  Achaea, c. 1.3 km from the coast (Pol. 4,57,5) and c. 2.2 km from the port of the same name (Paus. 7,26,1), west of the modern village of Derveni. Protected on three sides by steep hills and on the fourth approachable only via a narrow ridge, A. was easy to defend and, at the same time, controlled the coastal road. The hilltop settlement ( c. 416 m), inhabited since the late Mycenaean period (12th cent. BC), was originally called Hyperesia …

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Alba

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Main city of the  Helvii in  Gallia Narbonensis, called Aps in the Middle Ages, since 1903 once again carrying the ancient name that is mentioned only in texts from the 1st cent. AD on (Plin. HN 3,36; 14,43). A. was built in the course of the first two cents. AD, but the settlement of the area is documented since prehistory. Secured knowledge about the history of A. does not exist. The city's wealth was based on viticulture, crafts and commerce (four   collegia ). Destruction of A. by barbarians in the 3rd cent. AD is no longer accepted today.…

Aegium

(380 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Hellenistic states | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes (Αἴγιον; Aígion). Town in  Achaea on the Corinthian Gulf (Hom. Il. 2,574; Hdt. 1,145; Ps.-Scyl. 42; Str. 8,7,5, and also Ptol. 3,16,5; Hierocles 647; Geogr. Rav. 5,13). A. rose in three terraces above sea level, at the edge of a plateau with a slight drop to the west, which extended to the mountains in the south, at a safe anchorage between the mouths of two rivers…

Matisco

(137 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Town in the Provincia Lugdunensis on the Arar River (Saône) in the territory of the Haedui, 70 km north of Lugudunum, modern Mâcon (Saône-et-Loire). There are Celtic remains in the environs as well, e.g. in Varennes-lès-Mâcon. In 52 BC M. was a staging station (Caes. Gall. 7,90,7; 8,4), in the Roman Imperial period it was the starting-point of the road to Augustodunum. A castrum was built in the 4th century AD. Necropolis. Sources: Itin. Anton. 359; Tab. Peut. 2,5 ( Matiscone); Notitia Galliarum 1,5; Geogr. Rav…

Darioritum

(82 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Principal city of the Veneti in the Gallia Lugdunensis, today known as Vannes, on the Gulf of Morbihan. Documentary evidence: Ptol. 2,8,6; Tab. Peut. ( Dartoritum); Not. Galliarum 3,8 ( civitas Venetum). A prosperous city during the Roman imperial period, D. was protected by a city wall during the troubled times of the 3rd cent., a wall which, as indicated by the remains, only enclosed part of D. Inscription.: CIL 13, 3140f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Pape, La Bretagne romaine, 1995.

Caphyae

(209 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arcadians, Arcadia (Καφυαί; Kaphyaí). Town in north-eastern Arcadia, north of the northern plain of Orchomenus, 1 km south-east of the modern Chotusa, with only sparse ancient remains. Votive from the war booty in Delphi of the 5th cent. BC (Syll.3 48). In the Chremonidean War (267-261 BC), C. fought against  Antigonus [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25); afterwards, it belonged to the Achaean League, apart from a short interlude following its capture by Cleomenes III (Plut. Agis and Cleomenes 25,4; Pol. 2,5…

Methydrium

(221 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεθύδριον/ Methýdrion, locally Μετίδριον/ Metídrion). City in northern Arcadia with a small number of ruins near the modern M. (formerly Nemnitsa), south of Vytina (at a height of approximately 1000 m). Originally independent, M. belonged to Orchomenus, probably from 400/368 BC, and to Megale Polis from 369/360 BC (?). Border inscription: [5. 664; 1; 2]. Remains of a circular wall dating from the 4th cent. BC. [3]. M. was several times temporarily independent (Syll.3 490,18ff., c. 234/3 BC; Syll.3 559,61; coins). The place is mentioned in Theoph. FGrH 115 …

Agatha

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Punic Wars Town in  Gallia Narbonensis, colony of  Massalia, within the territory of the  Volcae Arecomici, modern Agde (Str. 4,1,5 f.; Plin. HN 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ἀγάθη; Agáthē, ‘good’), located on the edge of the Hérault-delta on a hillside which has been continually inhabited since ancient times. Because of its location, this seaport was an important safeguard of the trade between the Mediterranean countries and Gallia. In the 5th cent. AD bishop's seat. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography…

Arar

(88 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in  Gallia, earlier called Βρίγουλος ( Brígoulos), later   Sauconna ; the modern Saône (Ps.-Plut. De Fluminibus 6). Rising in the Vosges (according to Str. 4,1,11; 3,2 the Alps; Ptol. 2,10,4 -- confusion with  Isara); navigable from its confluence with the  Dubis, with a remarkably slow current, it formed the border between the  Haedui and the  Sequani (Caes. B Gall. 1,12,1) and joined the  Rhodanus near ad Confluentes, opposite  Lugdunum. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Opelt, A., der Grenzstrom zw. Häduern und Sequanern, in: Gymnasium, 1988, 481-492.

Atax

(27 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Coastal river in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Aude. It rises in the Pyrenees, and discharges into the Mediterranean south of Narbo. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Os(s)ismi(i)

(127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe (Str. 4,4,1; Plin. HN 4,107; Mela 3,23; Ptol. 2,8,5; Tab. Peut 2,2) in Aremorica (in present-day Brittany; cf. Caes. B Gall. 7,75,4: O. amongst the civitates quae ... Aremoricae appellantur), to the west of the Veneti and Coriosolites, the main town being Vorgium (present-day Carhaix, dépt. Finistère). Subjugated in 58 BC by Caesar's praefectus equitum Licinius [I 16] Crassus (Caes. B. Gall. 2,34,1), they took part in 56 BC in an insurrection of Gallic tribes against Rome (Caes. B. Gall. 3,9,10). After Diocletian's reorgan…

Glanum

(333 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul Town in Gallia Narbonensis (modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) in the region of the  Salluvii. Located on the great trade route running east-west that connected Italy with Spain (later the via Domitia), G.'s importance was also due to its location at the end of the north-south road which provided G. control over the direct access to the Crau plain. A Celtic-Ligurian sanctuary that was dedicated to the god Glan and the   Matres [1] was located in the vicinity of a mineral spring. The res…

Pallantium

(168 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Παλλάντειον/ Pallánteion, lit. Παλλάντιον/ Pallántion). City on the western edge of the eastern Arcadian plain, 7 km south of Tripoli, with a few remains on a hill that juts out from the Kravari mountain range (earlier Boreion), today P. again (formerly Berbati). Remains of the acropolis wall and of four temples from the Archaic and Classical periods [1] are preserved. P. was an independent city in the 4th and 2nd cents. BC despite its incorporation in the synoikismós of Megalopol…

Maritima

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( M. Avaticorum, Mela 2,78; oppidum M., Plin. HN 3,34; Μαρίτιμα κολωνία, Ptol. 2,10,5; colonia M., Geogr. Rav. 5,3; 4,28). Capital of the Avatici (Gallia Narbonensis). It was preceded as a settlement by a pre-Roman oppidum, whose name is unknown. It is possible that M. was a colonia founded under Caesar or Augustus. The site is not precisely known: on the Étang de la Valduc or the Étang de Berre near Miramas, or, more probably, near Martigues. Important staging-post on the trade route from Massalia to Arelate via Saint-Blaise and La Crau. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G…

Macareae

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακαρέαι; Makaréai). Town west of Megale Polis, belonging to its region, in the plain to the left of the Alpheius, in ruins at the time of Pausanias (8,3,3; 27,4; 36,9); remains not known. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Phara

(180 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαρά/ Phará, Φαραί/ Pharaí, ethnicon Φαραιεύς/ Pharaieús). City in western Achaea on the left bank of the Peirus (Str. 8,7,4f.; Paus. 7,22,1-5 [2. 186-188]; Ptol. 3,16,15: Φέραι or Φάραι; Plin. HN 4,13: Pherae; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαραί, also Φηραί) near the modern villages of Pharai and Prevedos. With a commanding position on the road between western Achaea (with Patrae) and Arcadia. Significant in the Mycenaean period [1. 230-232, 240f.]. P. was one of the 12 ancient cities of Achaea (Hdt. 1,145: Φαρέες; Pol. 2…

Ambarri

(62 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in  Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, on both sides of the  Arar (thus the name), related to the  Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 1,11,4. 14,3). In the 6th cent. BC they took part in the Celtic invasion of Italy (Liv. 5,34). CIL XIII 2446-2580; 11215-11222. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Wuilleumier, Inscriptions latines des trois Gaules, Gallia Suppl. 17, 1963, 303-310bis.

Gorgobina

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Modern La Guerche/Nièvre). City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later of Aquitania, east of Elaver, south of Aquae Bormonis. The  Boii settled in G. in 58 BC, after the defeat of the Helvetii in the battle against Caesar. G. became Boiorum oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 7,9,6). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography H. Bigeard, A. Bouthier, Carte archéologique de la Gaule 58 (Nièvre), 1996.

Colonides

(80 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (αἱ Κολωνίδες). Town (or ‘village’, κώμη, Plut. Philopoemen 18,3) on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf near present-day Kaphirio [1] or possibly Vunaria (evidence of settlement) [2]. Minted coins during the Severian dynasty. References: Paus. 4,34,8; 12; Ptol. 3,16,7 (Κολώη). Inscription: IG V 1,1402-1404; SEG 11,996f. Coins: HN 432f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Hope Simpson, The Seven Cities Offered by Agamemnon to Achilles, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 125 2 E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, RE Suppl. 15, 197.

Allobroges

(303 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The territory of the A. (‘foreigners’: Schol. Juv. 8,234), in  Gallia Narbonensis, extended in the north up to the Cavares and the  Vocontii, between  Isara,  Rhodanus, lacus Lemannus and  Alpes. The A. are Celts who came late to Gaul; their first appearance is with Pol. 3,49,13 and Liv. 21,31,5 in connection with Hannibal's crossing of the Alps. During the intervention of the Romans requested by Massalia, the A. came, allied with the  Arverni , down the Rhodanus to the Vindelicis amnis (today Sorgue), wher…

Cotyrta

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κοτύρτα; Kotýrta). Spartan   períoikoi town on the west coast of the Parnon penninsula ( Parnon), maybe modern Daimonía, where Mycenaean finds have been recorded in quantity. References: Thuc. 4,56,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ. Epigraphy: IG V 1,961-967; 1013; SEG 2,173-175; 11,899. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Antipolis

(112 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Batavian Revolt (Ἀντίπολις; Antípolis). Harbour town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Antibes, inhabited from the 10th cent. BC, a colony of  Massalia in the territory of the Deciates, opposite of Nicaea (thus its name: Str. 4,1,5; 9. Plin. HN 3,5,34). In 154 BC, A. was harried by the  Ligures, and called for Rome to help: Pol. 33,7,2. Greek and Latin inscriptions: IG XIV, 2424-30; CIL XII 165-246 [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Chastagnol, Inscr. lat. de Narbonnaise 2, 1992. J. Clergues, A…

Lusi

(304 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουσοί/ Lousoí; ethnicon inscription Λουσιάτας/ Lousiátas; literary also Λουσιεύς, Λουσεύς probably after the Attic demoticon). Town in northern Arcadia between Cynaetha and Cleitor near modern Chamakou (at a height of about 1,000 m), sanctuary of Artemis Hemera, Hemerasia games. The sanctuary lies in the foothills of Chelmos southwest of modern Ano-L. and Kato-L. above a small plain in the south. Building remains only from the 4th-3rd cents. BC (propylaea, bouleuterion, Doric temple)…

Lugdunensis

(223 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Roman province, result of the partitioning of Gallia Comata into three provinces ( Tres Galliae: Belgica, L., Aquitania) by Augustus between 27 and 13 BC. Gallia L. comprised the tribes of Armorica, the Veliocasses and the Caletes. Several Celtic tribes of the southern Loire region belonged to Aquitania. Through the incorporation of the Lingones, Sequani, Raurici and Helvetii in the province of Belgica (in 10 or 8 BC), the L. no longer had access to the Rhine (Str. 4,3,1; Plin. HN 4,106). Gallia…

Canathus

(51 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάναθος; Kánathos). The spring in which, according to Argive legend, Hera bathed once a year to restore her virginity (Paus. 2,38,2); probably the large spring in the monastery of Hagia Moni, 2 km east of Nauplia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece 3, 21913, 304f.

Lechaeum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λέχαιον; Léchaion). Harbour of Corinth [1] on the Corinthian Gulf, 3 km north of the city, connected with it by a double wall in the classical period ( c. 450 BC) [1]. The inner harbour basin, which is silted up today to a large extent, is still recognizable, also an outer harbour, few other remains, e.g. a large early Christian basilica [2]. Xen. Hell. 4,4,12 mentions ship sheds, and sanctuaries of Poseidon (Paus. 2,2,3; Callim. H. 4,271) and of Aphro…

Lycosura

(505 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Oracles (Λυκόσουρα; Lykósoura). [German version] A. Location and history City of Arcadian Parrhasia, 7 km west of Megale Polis with a sanctuary of Despoina (Persephone/Kore), today called Siderokastro of Stala or Palaiokrambavos. L. is situated in the forested mountain country on the southern bank of the Plataniston, and the sanctuary is located on a terrace of a range of hills on whose peak L. lay; with the exception of parts of the wall of the acro…

Ensérune

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Fortified high-altitude settlement ( oppidum?) between Béziers and Narbonne on a hill c. 120 m high, well protected by steep slopes to the north and to the east; it ruled a plain surrounded by ponds and crossed by an important traffic route between the Iberian and Italian peoples. Three settlement phases are documented by ceramic finds (end of 6th cent. BC ─ end of 1st cent. AD). The second phase ( c. 425-220 BC) includes the building of a city wall (4th cent.), and of the necropolis with its numerous Celtic finds; there is evidence of trading relati…

Baeterrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul Oppidum of the  Volcae Arecomici in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Béziers (Hérault), settled at the latest from 750/650 BC. Since Caesar's time, Colonia Urbs Iulia Septimanorum Baeterrae with veterans of the legio VII (Plin. HN 3,36; Mela 2,75; Str. 4,1,6; Ptol. 2,10,6). B. was the centre of an important road network, and controlled a large and prosperous surrounding area, favoured by the nearby ports of Agatha and Narbo. Its destruction in the …

Mases

(110 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάσης; Másēs). Location and harbour on the southwestern coast of the Argolid peninsula on the eastern shore of the bay of Koilada, north west of the modern village of Kampo, with few ancient remains. Mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,562; in the historical period it was the port of Hermion(e). References: Str. 8,6,17; Paus. 2,35,11; 36,1f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Eust. in Hom. Il. 288,11. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 240f. M. Jameson, Inscriptions of the Peloponnesos, in: Hesperia 22, 1953, 167f. C. N. Runnels, T. H. van Andel, The …

Gortys

(239 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Γόρτυς; Górtys). Settlement in Arcadia near the modern Atsicholo between Dimitsana and Karytaina, where the valley widens on the right bank of the Gortynius, a tributary of the  Alpheius [1]. G. comprised a fortified acropolis which controlled the northern access to the plain of Megalopolis, and north-east of the acropolis a terrace towering over the gorge of the Gortynius. According to Paus. 8,27,4, it was one of a number of settlements whose inhabitants came from  Cynuria. G. became part of the territory of Megalopolis, but retained its status as a kómē [1]. In the …

Cyphanta

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κύφαντα or Κύφας; Kýphanta or Kýphas). Spartan perioikic polis (  períoikoi ) on the east coast of the  Parnon peninsula with an Asclepius sanctuary, already in ruins at the time of Pausanias, located in the bay with the mod. name of Kyparissi. Documentary evidence: Pol. 4,36,5; Paus. 3,24,2; Ptol. 3,16,10; 22; Plin. HN 4,17. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 146-149 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, East-Central Laconia, in: ABSA 15, 1908/9, 173.

Corone

(262 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κορώνη; Korone). City on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf, modern Petalidi, c. 30 km south west of Kalamata, at the foot of Mount Mathia (modern Lykodimo) with numerous ancient remains, including parts of the city wall. After Messenia had been freed from Spartan rule by the Boeotians under Epaminondas, a new Boeotian city was allegedly founded (it is impossible to decide conclusively whether there was an older C. [1]); after 184 BC member of the …

Etanna

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Civitas of the Allobroges in Gallia Narbonensis on the left bank of the Rhône, statio on the Vienne-Geneva road (Tab. Peut.). Identified with Yenne or Etain near Yenne. Flourished from the 2nd to 6th cents. AD. Inscriptions: CIL 12,305. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Dufournet, Le réseau routier gallo-romain de Vienne à Genève et la position des stations d'E. et de Condate, Archéologie, 1965, 35-72.

Melaeneae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελαινεαί/ Melaineaí, Latin Melaenae). Town in western Arcadia, north of the river Alpheius, 40 stadia ( c. 7 km) west of Buphagium, abandoned by Pausanias's time (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,3,3; 26,8), perhaps near modern Kokkora, south of Kakouraeika (Kakouraei). There are some remains of an estate from the Roman period. Evidence: Plin. HN 4,20; Tab. Peut. 7,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελαιναί. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 74-77 E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 101-106.

Heraea

(305 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Ἡραία; Hēraía). Western Arcadian city on the right bank of the central course of the Alpheius, shortly before the mouth of the Ladon, with extensive territory, comprising a number of fortified settlements. H. was of strategic importance because of its location on a major road, linking Elis, Arcadia, and the Argolid. According to Paus. 8,26,1, the city was located on a plateau, rising gently from the banks of the…

Lepreum

(308 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λέπρεον; Lépreon). The most significant, southerly city of Triphylia. Preserved remains of the acropolis in the north of modern L. (formerly Strovitsi) with parts of a ring wall and other building remains: a small Doric temple (Demeter? [1]) of the 4th cent. BC and an altar; in the territory of L. on the road from Perivolia to Bassae a Doric temple of the 4th/3rd cents. BC [2]; in the southwest, near modern Prasidaki, a Doric temple of the Hellenic period. Minyan foundation after…

Cenabum

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Capital of the  Carnutes on the Loire, more likely Orléans than Gien (Caes. B Gall. 7; 8), derived from Genabum/C.; Celtic root gen, ‘mouth’, ‘river mouth’. C. was the starting point of the uprising of 52 BC under the command of  Vercingetorix; subsequently, Caesar ordered C. to be laid waste. Having suffered badly in the crises of the 3rd cent. AD, C. lost its name. From then on, it became capital of the civitas Aurelianorum. In AD 451, it was besieged by Attila. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Debal, Les Gaulois en…

Alesia

(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Caesar | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Oppidum   Oppidum of the  Mandubii in  Gallia Celtica, today Alise-Sainte-Reine (Côte-d'Or). A. took up a plateau of c. 80 hectares with remarkable natural protection on Mont Auxois (Mons Alisiensis). In 52 BC  Vercingetorix was besieged here by Caesar and despite the intervention of relief troops had to capitulate (Caes. B Gall. 7,68-90). A. continued to exist as a Gallo-Roman centre dur…

Neris

(35 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νηρίς/ Nērís). Settlement in the territory of Cynuria [1] in the eastern Peloponnese, possibly at modern Kato Doliana [1. 122-124; 2. 75-79] (Paus. 2,38,6; Stat. Theb. 4,46). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Pritchett 3 2 Pritchett 4.

Geronthrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Γερόνθραι; Gerónthrai). Spartan perioikoi town on the western edge of the Parnon above the Eurotas valley, later part of the league of the  Eleutherolakones, near modern Geraki, still inhabited in the Imperial period and thus even named in Hierocles (Synekdemos 647,9). Paus. 3,22,6f. mentions a temple of Ares with a grove, an agora with a fountain house and a temple of Apollo on the acropolis. Further evidence: Steph. Byz. s.v. Γεράνθραι; Geránthrai; IG V 1, 1110-1141. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Cabillon(n)um

(71 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Town by the Arar in Gallia Lugdunensis, today Chalon-sur-Saône. As a river port of the Haedui, C. was of economic importance until the conquest by the Romans. Literary sources: Caes. B Gall. 7,42; 7,90; Str. 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,8,12. In later times, station of the classis Ararica. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Bonnamour, s.v. Cabillon(n)um, PE, 179f. Grenier 2, 1934, 562-564.

Helvii

(140 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( Elvii, Elvi or Ilvi, Caes. B Civ. 1,35; Ἑλουοί, Str. 4,2,1). Celtic tribe of people whose area (modern Dép. Ardèche) on the right bank of the Rhône in the north bordered on the Segusiavi, in the west on the Vellavii and Gabali and in the south on the Volcae Arecomici. The Cevennes separated them from the Arverni (Caes. B Gall. 7,8). In 52 BC in the war against Vercingetorix they were on the side of Caesar. In the new division of the province under Augustus they were attached to Aqui…

Caryae

(213 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρύαι; Karýai). [German version] [1] Arcadian settlement Arcadian settlement (χωρίον) on the southern shore of the lake of Pheneus (Paus. 8,13,6; 14,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Settlement in NW-Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Settlement in the north-western Parnon range, on Sparta's north-eastern border with Arcadia, either near the modern Analipsis on the banks of the Saranda-Potamos in the north-east of the plain of Kambos, or near Arachova north of the village that once again bears th…

Lingones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic people on the border between Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica, between the Senones and the Sequani (Str. 4,1,11; 3,4; 6,11: Λίγγονες/ Língones; Ptol. 2,9,9: Λόγγονες/ Lóngones). The L. did not participate in the battles of the Gauls against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,26,5; 40,11; 7,9,4; 63,7; Plut. Caesar 26,6; Cass. Dio 40,38; 66,3). Already foederati at the time (Plin. HN 4,31), they gained Roman citizenship at the end of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Hist. 1,78,1). After AD 250, they belonged to the provincia Lugdunensis. Their capital was Andematu(n)num (mod…

Nestane

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νεστάνη/ Nestánē). Fortified village (κώμη/ kṓmē) in the Mantinea region in Arcadia (Theop. FGrH 115 F 175; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 234) on the eastern edge of the plateau on the road to Argos [II 1] by way of the Prinos pass. At the time of Pausanias (8,7,4; 8,1) N. was in ruins; near what is now Nestane (formerly Tsipiana). Remains of the castle wall have been preserved. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography S. and H. Hodkinson, Mantineia and the Mantinike, in: ABSA 76, 1981, 267-269  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11, 1986 (1990), 156f.  Jost, 140.

Esuvii

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Esubii). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the lower Seine and the Loire. Caesar (Gall. 2,34; 3,7; 5,24; 5,53) mentions it as one of the tribes of Aremorica (Bretagne) between the Coriosolites and the Aulerci in the area of Sées (Orne). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Sicyon

(827 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lafond
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars (Σικυών; Sikyṓn). [German version] I. Site Port on the Gulf of Corinth, 26 km to the west of Corinth. Its territory was confined to the east by the river Nemea [2] (border with Corinth), to the west by the river Sythas (border with Pellene) (Paus. 7,27,12). S. was famous as early as Antiquity for the fertility of the valley and for the highlands of Neogene marl. In the Archaic and Classic…

Lessa

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λῆσσα; Lêssa). Village on the Argolian Acte on the border to Epidaurus, presumably near modern Ligurio, with Athena sanctuary. Literary evidence: Paus. 2,25,10; 26,1. Inscriptions: IG IV, 906-912; 1611. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Frickenhaus, W. Müller, Aus der Argolis, in: MDAI(A) 36, 1911, 30 R. L. Scranton, The Pottery from the Pyramids, in: Hesperia 7, 1938, 537.

Augustodunum

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce Augustan foundation at the junction of the basins of the Loire, the Saône and the Rhône, modern Autun. Built as a replacement for  Bibracte as the capital of the Haedui, A. became a lively centre of Romanization. Marked by insurgencies in the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 3,43), A. was distinguished by its great prosperity up to the end of the 3rd cent (cf. archaeological finds). Despite its decline after the capitulation…

Epitalium

(50 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάλιον; Epitálion). Town in Triphylia on the left bank of the  Alpheius [1]. References: Xen. Hell. 3,2,29; Pol. 4,80; Str. 8,3,12; 8,3,24. Archaeology: significant remains from Roman times. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Chroniques des fouilles, in: BCH 94, 1970, 996 E. Meyer, Neue peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1957, 50, 60.

Cynortium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόρτιον; Kynórtion). The mountain above the theatre of the Asclepius sanctuary of Epidaurus with the sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas (Paus. 2,27,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography V. Lambrinudakis, Excavation and Restoration of the Sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas and Asclepius at Epidauros, in: Peloponnesiaka Suppl. 13, 1987f., 298ff.

Oetylus

(147 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Οἴτυλος/ Oítylos). Town, present-day Otylon (Itylon), on the eastern bank of the Messenian Gulf by the deep harbour bay hórmos limeníu (ὅρμος λιμενίου) and 7.5 km to the north of Areopoli on the west coast of Mani (Hom. Il. 2,585; Str. 8,4,4: Βοίτυλος/ Boítylos; Paus. 25,10; 26,1; Ptol. 3,16,22: Βοίτυλα/ Boítyla; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ο., here also Βοίτυλος/ Boítylos). In the Classical period it was a Laconic town of períoikoi . From the time of Augustus it was one of the 18 m…

Marganeis

(125 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μαργανεῖς/ Marganeîs). Small community west of Olympia in the plain north of the Alpheius between the modern villages of Phloka and Strephi, dependent on Elis as períoikoi . Exact location unknown. In the war of the Spartans against Elis in 401 BC on the Spartan side (Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; Diod. Sic. 15,77,4, Μάργανα/ Márgana), in the peace of 400 BC autonomous (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), in 294 in the battle at Nemea again on the side of the Spartans (Xen. Hell. 4,2,16), but claimed by Elis (Xen. Hell. 6,5,2). Last mentioned in 364 BC as an…

Bracata

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] South-eastern Gaul, later ‘Togata’ or ‘Narbonensis’, named after the trousers worn by the barbarians (Mela 2,74; Plin. HN 3,31). By contrast, the rest of Gaul was called comata (‘hairy’, cf. Cic. Phil. 8,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Py, Les Gaulois du midi, 1993.

Narbonensis

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The name N. was given in 27 BC to the Roman provincia Transalpina, which was formed from Gaulish areas either side of the Rhodanus (moder Rhone). It had been occupied by the Romans between 125 and 118 BC after a call for help from Massalia in the dispute with the Salluvii tribe. The boundaries of the province were the Mediterranean coast from the Varus (Var) as far as the Pyrenees, the Alps, Lacus Lemanus (Lake Geneva), the upper reaches of the Rhodanus (excluding Lugdunum), the foothills of …

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Lyrceia, Lyrceum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυρκεία, Λύρκειον; Lyrkeía, Lýrkeion). Settlement c. 12 km north-west of Argos in the Inachus valley (Paus. 2,25,4f.; Str. 6,2,4), located either on the site of the ruins of Skala, or on the site of the modern Lyrkeia (formerly Kato Belesi), or east of the modern Sterna on the left bank of the Inachus. The pre-Homeric city was probably sited near Melissi (Mycenaean necropolis). Following Argos' rise, L. remained a politically dependent kṓmē . According to Str. 8,6,7 [1. 70], the river Inachus [2] rose from the mountain range also n…

Cromnus

(80 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρῶμνος, Κρῶμνα, Κρῶμναι, Κρῶμοι). Place in the Arcadian region of Cromnitis on the road from Megalopolis to Messene, 11 km south of Megalopolis, possibly on a hill c. 2 km north-east of modern Paradisia (Παραδείσια). Incorporated into the foundation of Megalopolis. Attested in Paus. 8,3,4; 27,4; 34,5f.; Xen. Hell. 7,4,20-28; Callisthenes, FGrH 124 F 13; Steph. Byz., s.v. Κρῶμνα. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roy et al., Two Sites in the Megalopolis Basin, in: J. M. Sanders (ed.), ΦΙΛΟΛΑΚΩΝ, 1992, 190-194.

Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Asea

(119 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine Town in southern  Arcadia, halfway between Megalopolis and  Tegea on the small plateau of Frangovrysi near the sources of the Alpheius and the Eurotas (Str. 8,3,12). The settlement on the acropolis can be traced back from the Neolithic to the Middle Helladic and Hellenistic periods (town walls); in 368/67 BC, it was integrated into the new foundation of Megalopolis; at the time of Pausanias (8,44,3), A. lay in ruins. The settlement of the classical period has not been localized. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E…

Decetia

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] City of the Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 7,33) in Gallia Lugdunensis, road junction (It. Ant. 367: Decetia; 460: Deccidae; Tab. Peut.: Degetia; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Dizezeia); today's Decize (Nièvre). CIL 13, 2814-2816. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Andematu(n)num

(153 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Batavian Revolt Located on a plateau with steep slopes to all sides, A., the modern Langres (Haute-Marne; traces of neolithic and Bronze Age settlements), was the main town of the  Lingones (Ptol. 2,9,9). Because of this and its location at the junction of the road from the Atlantic to northern Italy with that from the Mediterranean to the  Rhenus, it soon developed into a flourishing town. Harried by the  Alamanni in AD 298, A.- known as   civitas Lingonum in late antiquity -- was destroy…

Aulerci

(122 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Volk in Gallia Celtica, später Lugdunensis, zw. Loire und Seine, das in vier Teilstämme zerfiel (Caes. Gall. 3,17; 7,75; Plin. nat. 4,107; Ptol. 2,8): 1. Die Cenomani, die teils nach Oberit. zogen (Liv. 5,35,1), teils um Subdinum (h. Le Mans) siedelten, wo sie Mars Mullo verehrten [1. 343-348]. 2. Die Diablintes/Diablinti, Hauptort Noviodunum [2. 454-463; 3]. Nicht Caesar, wohl aber Ptol. (2,8,7) hat diese den A. zugeordnet. 3. Die Eburovices [4], Hauptort Mediolanum. 4. Die Brannovices, clientes der Haedui (Caes. Gall. 7,75,2). Die Lokalisierung ihres…

Andecavi

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Volksstamm in Gallia Lugdunensis (an der unteren Loire) mit dem Hauptort Iuliomagus (h. Angers sur la Maine; Caes. Gall. 2,35,3; 3,7,2; 7,4,6: Andes; Plin. nat. 4,107 und Oros. 6,8,7: Andicavi). Bei dem Aufstand der Gallier unter Iulius Sacrovir 21 n. Chr. begannen sie zusammen mit den Turoni den Kampf, wurden aber rasch überwältigt (Tac. ann. 3,41). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Blanchard-Lemée et al., Recueil général des mosaïques de Gaule 2,4, 1991  M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Kyphanta

(68 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sparta (Κύφαντα oder Κύφας). Spartanische Perioikenstadt ( períoikoi ) an der Ostküste der Parnonhalbinsel (Parnon) mit Asklepios-Heiligtum, zu Pausanias' Zeit in Ruinen, an der h. Kyparissi gen. Bucht. Belege: Pol. 4,36,5; Paus. 3,24,2; Ptol. 3,16,10; 22; Plin. nat. 4,17. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 146-149  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, East-Central Laconia, in: ABSA 15, 1908/9, 173.

Neris

(36 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Νηρίς). Ortschaft in der Landschaft Kynuria [1] im Osten der Peloponnesos, vielleicht bei h. Kato Doliana [1. 122-124; 2. 75-79] zu suchen (Paus. 2,38,6; Stat. Theb. 4,46). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Pritchett 3 2 Pritchett 4.

Letrinoi

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Λετρῖνοι). Ortschaft an der Straße von Elis nach Olympia mit Heiligtum der Artemis Alpheiaia, im Norden des Alpheios [1], beim h. Pirgos oder weiter westl. beim Dorf Hagios Ioannis zu lokalisieren; bestand zu Pausanias' Zeit nur noch aus wenigen Häusern. Belege: Paus. 6,22,8-11; Xen. hell. 3,2,25; 30; 4,2,16; Lykophr. Alexandra 54. Einheimische Namensform inschr. und bei Xen. hell. 4,2,16 in den Mss. Λεδρῖνοι ( Ledrínoi). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide 1, EAA2, 447f.  E. Meyer, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 11, 876.

Narbonensis

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Den Namen N. erhielt 27 v.Chr. die aus gall. Gebieten beiderseits des Rhodanus (h. Rhône) gebildete röm. prov. Transalpina. Diese war zw. 125 und 118 v.Chr. nach einem Hilferuf von Massalia in der Auseinandersetzung mit dem Stamm der Salluvii von den Römern besetzt worden. Die Grenzen der Prov.: die Mittelmeerküste vom Varus (Var) bis zu den Pyrenaei, die Alpes, der Lacus Lemanus (Genfer See), der Oberlauf des Rhodanus (unter Ausschluß von Lugdunum), die Vorgebirge des Massif Central und des Mons Cevenna, im Westen Tolosa. N. wurde endgültig von der Gallia Comata losg…

Koryphasion

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Κορυφάσιον). Felskap am Nordende der Bucht von Navarino in Messenia; hier lag in klass. Zeit die Stadt Pylos mit einem Heiligtum der Athena Koryphasia (Paus. 4,36,1f.). Der Hafen von Pylos wird nicht mit der Lagune Osman-Aga (Divari) identifiziert, sondern ist in der Bucht von Navarino zu suchen. Belege: Thuk. 4,3,2; 118,4; 5,18,7; Diod. 15,77,4; Strab. 8,3,7; 21; 23; 27; 4,1f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, RE Suppl. 15, 201f.  Pritchett 1, 1965, 6-29.

Lechaion

(152 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Makedonia, Makedones (Λέχαιον). Hafen von Korinthos [1] am Korinth. Golf, 3 km nördl. der Stadt, mit dieser in klass. Zeit (ca. 450 v.Chr.) durch eine doppelte Mauer verbunden [1]. Das h. großenteils versandete innere Hafenbecken ist noch erkennbar, dazu ein äußerer Hafen, sonstige Reste sind gering, z.B. eine große früchristl. Basilika [2]. Schiffshäuser erwähnt Xen. hell. 4,4,12, Heiligtümer des Poseidon (Paus. 2,2,3; Kall. h. 4,271) und …

Autessiodurum

(41 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Christentum Stadt der Senones in Gallia Celtica, später Lugdunensis (h. Auxerre). A. lag auf der linken Uferseite der Yonne (CIL XIII 2920-2939). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Kapps, s.v.A., PE, 128.

Phaisana

(42 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Φαισάνα). Ortschaft am Alpheios (Pind. O. 6,34f.) in der Pisatis (Istros FGrH 334 F 41; Didymos, schol. Pind. O. 6, 55a), vielleicht identisch mit Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Melpeia

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Μέλπεια). Ort im Nomia-Gebirge mit einem Heiligtum des Pan Nomios, südl. von Lykosura (Arkadia). Genaue Lage unbekannt. (Paus. 8,38,11). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 178f.  K. Kuruniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Νομίου Πανός, in: Praktika 1902, 1903, 72-75.

Aigion

(312 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Makedonia, Makedones | Naturkatastrophen (Αἴγιον). Stadt in Achaia am Golf von Korinth (Hom. Il. 2,574; Hdt. 1,145; Ps.-Skyl. 42; Strab. 8,7,5, und auch Ptol. 3,16,5; Hierokles 647; Geogr. Rav. 5,13). A. erhebt sich in drei Stufen über dem Meeresspiegel am Rande einer leicht westl. abfallenden Hochebene, die sich nach Süden bis ans Bergland ausdehnt, auf einer geschützten Reede zw. z…

Arar

(82 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Fluß in Gallia, früher Βρίγουλος, später Sauconna gen., h. Saône (Ps.-Plut. de fluminibus 6). In den Vogesen (Alpen nach Strab. 4,1,11; 3,2; Ptol. 2,10,4 - Verwechslung mit Isara) entspringend, ab dem Zufluß des Dubis schiffbar, mit auffallend langsamer Strömung, bildete er die Grenze zw. Haedui und Sequani (Caes. Gall. 1,12,1) und vereinigte sich mit dem Rhodanus bei ad Confluentes gegenüber von Lugdunum. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Opelt, A., der Grenzstrom zw. Häduern und Sequanern, in: Gymnasium, 1988, 481-492.

Helvii

(120 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] ( Elvii, Elvi oder Ilvi, Caes. civ. 1,35; Ἑλουοί, Strab. 4,2,1). Kelt. Volksstamm, dessen Gebiet (h. Dép. Ardèche) am rechten Ufer der Rhône im Norden an die Segusiavi, im Westen an die Vellavii und Gabali und im Süden an die Volcae Arecomici grenzte. Die Cevennen trennten sie von den Arverni (Caes. Gall. 7,8). 52 v.Chr. standen sie im Krieg gegen Vercingetorix auf der Seite Caesars. Bei der Neugliederung der Prov. unter Augustus wurden sie zu Aquitania geschlagen (Strab. l.c.), gehö…

Heraia

(252 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Arkades, Arkadia (Ἡραία). Westarkad. Stadt am rechten Ufer des mittleren Alpheios, kurz vor der Einmündung des Ladon, mit ausgedehntem Territorium, in dem mehrere befestigte Ortschaften lagen. Strategische Bed. hatte H. wegen seiner Lage an der großen Straße, die Elis, Arkadia und Argolis verband. Nach Paus. 8,26,1 lag H. auf einer Platte, die sanft von den Ufern des Alpheios ansteigt (geringe Reste beim h. Hagios Ioannis). Ein Bündnis mit Elis ist aus dem 6. Jh. bezeugt (IvOl 9; SGDI I, 1149; Syll.3…

Decetia

(37 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Stadt der Haedui (Caes. Gall. 7,33) in der Gallia Lugdunensis, Straßenknotenpunkt (Itin. Anton. 367: Decetia; 460: Deccidae; Tab. Peut.: Degetia; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Dizezeia); h. Decize (Nièvre). CIL 13, 2814-2816. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
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