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(794 words)

Author(s): McLean, Margaret R.
[German Version] Genetics, the science of inheritance. The beginning of the science of genetics is generally associated with the monk Johann Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), who was the first to discover patterns of trait inheritance through research on pea plants. Genetic research is done today on plants, animals, and humans (Genetic engineering). The following discussion is limited to the field of human genetics. Genes are the blueprint of each individual. They determine development from fertilized egg to adult. Genes are information-carrying sections of DNA (…


(237 words)

Author(s): McLean, Margaret R.
[German Version] Why do children resemble their parents? Although this question fascinated Hippocrates, Aristotle, and others, it was not until 1865 that the monk Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), through experiments with pea plants, discovered the fundamental laws of heredity. Heredity refers to the passing of certain traits or characteristics from parents to their offspring. Mendel determined that hereditary traits are governed by discrete “factors,” later called genes. He suggested that a pair of gene…

Behavioral Genetics

(378 words)

Author(s): McLean, Margaret R.
[German Version] Genetics is the study of the hereditary factors of biological variation. Human behavioral genetics seeks to understand how and to what degree genes affect behavior, and how those genes affect intelligence (Behavioral research). F. Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, was the first to study behavior and genetics systematically. Galton concluded – for example from the concentration and heredity of “ingenuity” in …

Behavioral Research

(1,507 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | McLean, Margaret R.
[German Version] I. Concept, History of Doctrine – II. Science – III. Behavioral Research and Ethics, Practical Theology and Pedagogy I. Concept, History of Doctrine Today, behavioral research or ethology, which also includes behaviorism, represents an increasingly ramified field of research that is particularly determined by biology and evolutionary concepts (Evolution). Sub-disciplines include: behavioral physiology (neurological and endocrinological), behavioral…