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(1,248 words)

Author(s): Stoellger, Philipp | Heesch, Matthias | Mette, Norbert
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Philosophy of Religion To begin the interpretation of society and religion with the notion of interaction means to assume a basis of action. Fundamental forms of interaction are, for example, cooperation, exchange, conflict and competition, or, according to F.D.E. Schleiermacher, identical and individual symbolization and organization. Problems of interaction occur when the rules of interaction are questionable. A monadic the…


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term socialization is used in various academic fields, especially sociology, (social) psychology, and the educational disciplines (Education, Theory of ). Already used by É. Durkheim in 1907, it experienced a wave of popularity in the 1960s and again in the 1980s. Initially it emphasized the formation of individuals by society; recently it has focused more on the interaction between individuals’ own activity and outside influences and between individuation and …


(2,915 words)

Author(s): Gephart, Werner | Schütt, Hans-Peter | Schlapkohl, Corinna | Stroh, Ralf | Mette, Norbert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Identity is not in the classical repertoire of religious studies and the sociology of religion. But the central problem of social identity, formulated as a question, makes its religious significance obvious: “Where do we come from?” is answered by creation (I) myths that refer to an original identity; “Who are we?” and “Where are we going?” are answered by religious promises and conc…

Hirscher, Johann Baptist

(279 words)

Author(s): Mette, Norbert
[German Version] (von; Jan 20, 1788, Bodnegg – Sep 4, 1865, Freiburg im Breisgau). Hirscher was ordained to the priesthood in Constance in 1810, assumed coaching and teaching responsibilities in Ellwangen and Rottweil, and became the first full professor for moral and pastoral theology at the newly founded faculty of Catholic theology of the University of Tübingen in 1817. In 1837 (-1863), he accepted an appointment as professor for moral theology and the teaching of religion at the University of Freiburg im ¶ Breisgau. He was the founder of church orphan care in Baden. Strong…

Citizens' Initiative

(143 words)

Author(s): Mette, Norbert
[German Version] The self-designation “citizens' initiative” (cf. Ger. Bürgerinitiativ) appeared in the 1960s when concerned citizens in cities or regions increasingly began to join forces on their own initiative in order to call attention to public issues or interests (e.g. land use, urban and traffic planning; threats through military installations or ecological exploitation; OneWorld Partnerships, etc.) which they felt were being ignored or only insufficiently represented …


(949 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Friedrich | Mette, Norbert
[German Version] I. Sociology and Social Ethics – II. Practical Theology I. Sociology and Social Ethics Multiculturalism denotes the coexistence of people of different cultural traditions within a single political unit. Although multiculturalism is a phenomenon with a long history, the term only became established in recent times. This has to do with the manner of dealing with the phenomenon of multiculturalism that prevailed for a long time: it was negated, and native or immigrant minorities were either marg…

Family Education

(983 words)

Author(s): Mette, Norbert | Harz, Frieder
[German Version] I. General – II. Family Religious Education I. General Because of altered social conditions, on the one hand, and a new definition of gender relations, on the other, the division of labor within families practiced across generations (Women: household; Men: profession) is in the process of an epochal transformation. This change is exerting lasting influence in the area remaining as the essential content of the contemporary family: child rearing (Child/Childhood, Education). While mothers …


(2,512 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus | Hutchison, William R. | Mette, Norbert | Spanke, Daniel
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Catholicism – III. Practical Theology – IV. Art History I. Church History 1. General The word modernism, derived from the adjective modern (Modernity), has often been used pejoratively. In 1524 Luther called the representatives of the nominalist via moderna (Nominalism) “modernists,” who have nothing to offer (WA 15, 52f.). In the 18th century, the opponents of traditional Protestant orthodoxy were sometimes tagged with the same label. Modernism in the strict sense served as a polemical categori…

Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

(177 words)

Author(s): Mette, Norbert
[German Version] (May 1, 1754, Höckel near Osnabrück – Nov 9, 1826, Münster), was ordained as priest in 1779. After serving as chaplain in Everswinkel, he was appointed in 1783 by the prince bishop’s vicar general, F.F.W. Fürstenberg, to teach in and direct a college to be founded in Münster for the initial and further training of primary school teachers; he remained active in that post until his death. In 1809 he became regent of the priests’ seminar and clerical dean in Münster; in 1818, Consist…

Laborer Priests

(252 words)

Author(s): Mette, Norbert
[German Version] Between 1941 and 1944, for various reasons (pastoral care for French forced laborers under German occupation, France as a missionary territory, acquaintance with the living conditions of the workers) a few diocesan and regular priests in France sought to establish contact with the working classes, most of whom were alienated from the church. To this end, they deliberately gave up their secure way of life to take jobs as workers, day laborers, etc. From this beginning, there grew t…