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James, Brother of Jesus

(353 words)

Author(s): Pratscher, Wilhelm
[German Version] James maintained his distance from the earthly Jesus (Mark 3:21, 31–35; 6:1–6; John 7:5). The parallel synoptic accounts and John 2:1–12 already correct this. According to 1 Cor 15:7, James was a witness to Jesus' resurrection. It appears that this was the main reason why the mother and brothers of Jesus (Jesus, Brothers and Sisters of) joined the Christian community at an early stage (Acts 1:14). Paul already noticed him on his first visit to Jerusalem (Gal 1:19). At the council,…

Glossolalia (Speaking in Tongues)

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Holm, Nils G. | Pratscher, Wilhelm | Thiede, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Psychology of Religion I. Religious Studies Glossolalia is a universal religious phenomenon in which utterances are produced that from the viewpoint of the speaker belong to a foreign “language.” Glossolalia appears in many cultures. In non-Christian contexts, it is often shamans (Shamanism), magicians (Magic), or other religious virtuosos who make use of it. When the ¶ spirit leaves the body or the body is taken over by another spirit, the shaman often signals the event by uttering alien sound…

Holy Spirit

(4,686 words)

Author(s): Pratscher, Wilhelm | Ritschl, Dietrich
1. Biblical Data 1.1. OT and Early Judaism Statements about the rûaḥ (spirit) of Yahweh are of direct pneumatological interest. The working of the rûaḥ is at first ecstatic, equipping charismatic leaders (Judg. 3:10; 6:34; 1 Sam. 10:6; Charisma) and prophets (1 Sam. 10:6; 19:20–24) for their tasks. Time and again those concerned are gripped by the Spirit. More permanent endowment first appears in the case of David (1 Sam. 16:13). The great preexilic prophets appeal to the Word of Yahweh rather than to his Spirit (though see Hos. 9:7 and Mic. 3:8; Word of God). Perhaps they wished t…

Kingdom of God

(5,852 words)

Author(s): Spieckermann, Hermann | Pratscher, Wilhelm | Steinacker, Peter
1. OT The OT contains only a few late references to the kingdom of God. The terms used—Heb. mĕlûkâ, malkût, mamlākâ; Aram. malkû, šolṭān, all meaning “kingdom,” “kingly rule,” or “empire”—show that what is meant is God’s royal rule or dominion. None of these well-attested terms, however, is primarily theological. For the most part, they refer to earthly kingdoms and empires, whether Israelite, Babylonian, or Persian. There is certainly unanimity that ¶ God gives and takes away earthly dominion (see 2 Sam. 16:8; 1 Chr. 10:14, etc.), but this conviction did not at firs…