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Marezoll, Johann Gottlieb

(176 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1761, Plauen – Jan 15, 1828, Jena). After studying philosophy and theology in Leipzig (1775–1783) and spending some time as a private tutor, in 1789 Marezoll was appointed university chaplain and in 1790 associate professor in Göt-¶ tingen. After receiving his doctorate from Helmstedt in 1794, in the same year he was appointed chief pastor of the German church in Copenhagen. Through the support of J.G. Herder, he was active after 1803 in Jena as a member of the consistory, superintendent, and pastor of the cit…


(1,413 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] 1. Theodosius Andreas (Jan 3, 1817, St. Petersburg – Sep 23, 1889, Tartu [Ger. Dorpat], Estonia). Harnack studied at Dorpat from 1834 to 1837; after three years as a private tutor, he also studied at Berlin, Bonn, and Erlangen. He became a Privatdozent in 1843. From 1848 to 1852 and again from 1866 to 1875 he was professor of practical theology at Dorpat, from 1853 to 1866 at Erlangen. In 1852/1853 he taught systematic theology at Dorpat. He was orphaned at 15; in 1857 his first wife…


(517 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Weiß, Otto
[German Version] 1. Luigi (baptismal name: Emanuele Nicoló; May 16, 1776, Sestri Levante – May 12, 1854, Rome), Barnabite. Lambruschini was appointed to the Curia in 1814; at the Congress of Vienna, he served as an adviser to E. Consalvi (concordats with France, Bavaria, and Naples). In 1819 be became archbishop of Genoa; from 1826 to 1830 he served as papal nuncio in Paris (opposing H. de Lamennais). In 1831 he was made Cardinal and from 1836 to 1846 served as papal secretary of state. In the 1846 …

Korczak, Janusz

(304 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Henryk Goldszmit; Jul 22, 1878 or 1879, Warsaw – Aug 1942, Treblinka). Reared in an assimilated Jewish family, Korczak studied medicine in Warsaw. As a physician in a children's hospital from ¶ 1905, he developed his educational theory beginning with the child (V; Progressive education) from the perspective of his work in an orphanage: from 1911 onward, he directed the “Orphans' Home” for Jewish children, and in 1919, together with Maryna Falska, he founded “Our House” for Polish children. The former was moved …


(573 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] After the Essenes and the Pharisees, the Sadducees were the most important Jewish party in Palestine in the period before 70 ce. They comprised the descendants and supporters of the (high-)priestly dynasty that traced its lineage to the eponymous priest Zadok of the Davidic and Solomonic period (2 Sam 8:17, etc.). The Greek word Σαδδουκαῖοι/ Saddukaíoi, always plural, first appears in Mark 12:28 and the works of Flavius Josephus ( Bell. II 119.164–166) – after the presumed dispersal of the party bearing that name. The Sadducees were already a recognizab…

Lake, Frank

(170 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Jun 6, 1914, Aughton, Lancashire – May 10, 1982, Nottingham). After studying medicine at Edinburgh, from 1937 to 1951 Lake worked for the Church Missionary Society as a doctor in India. ¶ Upon returning to England, he trained as a psychiatrist. In the late 1950s, he wove together psychoanalytic (Psychoanalysis) and (revivalistic) theological insights to form what he called “clinical theology.” Its central elements included the idea of a dynamic cycle (Life, Cycle of), drawn from the life of Jesus and his relati…


(4,604 words)

Author(s): Bankier, David | Cohn-Sherbok, Dan | Sarot, Marcel | Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] I. History – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics and Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Treatment in Education I. History Hitler assumed power in Germany on Jan 30, 1933. From this date onwards, racism and Antisemitism/Anti-Judaism became central components of the Nazi system (National Socialism). During the first months the NSDAP instigated anti-Semitic riots and campaigns of terror that climaxed on the Apr 1, 1933, with a country-wide boycott on Jewish shops and professionals. In additi…

School Worship/Devotions

(615 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] The terms school worship and school devotions (in Catholic contexts also school mass) denote extracurricular school activities of a liturgical or religious nature in school or municipal spaces, directed toward everyone connected with the school (not just students but teachers, other staff, and parents or relatives) or specific groups of students (e.g. a particular grade). A cooperating religious organization or a religion teacher at the school rather than the school itself is responsible for …


(10,627 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Greschat, Katharina | Markschies, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Primitive Christianity – IV. Church History – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Asia, Africa, and Latin America – VIII. Social Sciences – IX. Psychology – X. Philosophy of Religion – XI. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies To date there have been hardly any works devoted to men from the perspective of religious studies. Given the androcentrism of traditional scholarship, the category of homo religiosus has usually yielded knowledge of the religious male, but this work must …

School Prayers

(630 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Link, Christoph
[German Version] I. Practical Theology The term school prayers refers primarily to prayers at the beginning or end of the school day or during breaks, along with prayers during religious education classes. In German public schools today – unlike the period of the denominational primary schools (into the 1960s) and also unlike in England, for example – such prayers are a marginal phenomenon. Scattered attempts to reintroduced school prayers like that of the Bavarian government in 1987 (Kaufmann, 32–38) e…

Liebner, Karl Theodor Albert

(170 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1806, Schkölen near Naumburg – Jun 24, 1871, Meran). After studying classical philology and theology (from 1823), gaining his doctorate (1827), studying at the Wittenberg theological seminary (1828–1832), and after a pastorate in Kreisfeld near Eisleben (1832–1835), he became assistant professor and university ¶ chaplain in Göttingen in 1835. In 1844, he moved to Kiel and in 1851 to Leipzig. In 1855, he succeeded G.C.A. v. Harleß as chief court chaplain and vice-president of the consistory in Dresden. He shaped the li…

Preaching in Dialect

(369 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] is an expression of liturgical “multiligualism” (Cornehl, 83). It represents a form of preaching marked by its focus on the congregation and its contextuality. Different dialects may be involved, such as Low German or Swabian; preaching to a congregation must also be distinguished from proclamation of the gospel through the media (Preaching). Where a dialect is in active (or at least passive) use in the everyday life (Life-world) of the congregation (and the preacher), preaching i…

Kleinert, Paul

(106 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1837, Vielgut, Upper Silesia – Jul 29, 1920, Berlin). In the service of the church from 1861 on, Kleinert became associate professor (1868) and professor (1877–1907) of practical theology and Old Testament in Berlin. Among other offices, he belonged to the Evangelical Superior Church Council from 1895 to 1904. His practical theology was open to empiricism and ethics. Bernd Schröder Bibliography Works include: “Zur Praktischen Theologie,” ThStKr 53, 1880, 273–333 and 355; 1882, 7–104 Homiletik, 1907 On Kleinert: P.C. Bloth, “Paul Kleinert und Friedr…

Religious Education

(5,807 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Lachmann, Rainer | Link, Christoph | Schröder, Bernd | Heine, Peter
[German Version] I. History Religious education (RE) in schools, in modern usage of the term (for RE in a broader sense see Christian doctrine classes, Confirmation classes), is the result of the general differentiation process that led to the promotion of religious learning beyond the contexts of family and worship. The schools of the European cultural sphere arose largely in the area of the church (School and church, Church schools, Monastery schools); for a long time, schooling was essentially based on religious texts. Since each country established its own particular forms…

Hyperius, Andreas

(409 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Gerhard; Jun 16, 1511, Ypres, Flanders – Feb 1, 1564, Marburg), actually Andreas Gheeraerdts. Hyperius is an important figure in the history of the church in Hessen (so-called Hessian Melanchthon) and as an ancestor of practical theology. In the history of theology, he attests to the “serious ¶ consequences of the transition from the Reformation to orthodoxy” and is considered “a mediator between Humanism and the institutional church of the Reformation” (Krause, 1969, 265). He spent 1522–1541 journeying and studying humanism i…

Lambourne, Robert Alfred

(171 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (often called Bob; Jun 5, 1917, Edgbaston, Birmingham – Apr 2, 1972, Edgbaston). From 1945 to 1961, Lambourne worked as a general medical practitioner; after additional studies in theology and psychology, including work with Michael Balint (1896–1970), he served from 1964 until his death as lecturer in pastoral studies (Pastoral theology) in the department of theology of the University of Birmingham. He was interested in the salutary impact of the gospel in the broadest sense. Fro…

Teaching, Use of Media in

(563 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] The teaching media or tools discussed here include all non-personal, material means of instructional communication, from traditional tools like school Bibles, hymnals (V), and catechisms (V) through pictures (on paper, photos, slides, posters, or computer files), sound recordings, objects, film, and textbooks to the Internet and other media. Their didactic function consists primarily in bringing outside reality into the classroom vividly and sensuously. Traditionally such tools have been catego-¶ rized according to the senses involved (visual, audi…

Confirmation Classes

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Browning, Robert L.
[German Version] The theological justification for confirmation depends largely on the assumptions about what confirmation really is (Confirmation [Protestant], cf. Confirmation [Catholic]). It also depends on the understanding of the relation of confirmation to baptism and Eucharist implied in any particular educational/liturgical design. In the following discussion of the effectiveness of various educational designs found to be consistent with several, but not…

Kliefoth, Theodor

(253 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1810, Körchow, Mecklenburg – Jan 26, 1895, Schwerin), Lutheran theologian and church politician. After studies in Berlin (with F.D.E. Schleiermacher, E. Hengstenberg and A. Neander) and Rostock, he was a teacher at the court of the dukes of Mecklenburg in Ludwigslust (1833–1841), then pastor there (1840), superintendent and cathedral preacher in Schwerin (1844), and member of the High Consistory (1849–1894). His significance lies, firstly, in his studies of ecclesiology a…