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Agrippa II

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
Agrippa II (c. 27/28–c. 93? 100? CE), Herod the Great’s great grandson and son of Agrippa I (“Herod” of Acts 12), who figures in the New Testament in the story of Paul’s imprisonment (Acts 25–26), was the last of the dynasty to play an active role in the relations between Rome and Judaea. He was raised in Rome, with the advantages supplied by his father’s close ties to Claudius (who is reported to have described himself as having raised Agrippa; Jos. Ant. 20.12), and where he acquired what Flavius Josephus would characterize as his thorough familiarity with Greek culture (Jos. Vita 359). Upon…
Date: 2024-01-19

Pilate, Pontius

(357 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] Pontius Pilate was the fifth Roman governor of Judaea (Palestine). According to Flavius Josephus he was appointed by Tiberius in 26 ce, though possibly as early as 19, and served until around the time of Tiberius’s death in 37 ce. In the so-called Pilate inscription from Caesarea (see most recently Alföldy) his title is given as “praefectus Iudaeae.” Assessment of his tenure depends upon one’s choice between Tacitus’s general statement ( Historiae V 9.2) that “under Tiberius [Judaea] was quiet,” and Josephus’s account ( Bell. II 169–177; Ant. XVIII 55–89) which pict…

Herod/Herodian Dynasty

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] Herod I (“the Great”), of Idumean descent, who was (forcibly) converted to Judaism by the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus, was born c. 74 bce and ruled over Judea from 37 bce until his death in 4 bce. His father, Antipater, was the right hand of Hyrcanus II who ruled Judea between the Roman conquest in 63 bce and the Parthian invasion in 40 bce. After G.J. Caesar had appointed Antipater procurator of Judea in 48 bce, Antipater designated Herod as ruler of Galilee. He remained in this position after Antipater's death in 43 bce. During these years, when the East felt the impa…

Agrippa I (c. 7 BCE – 43/44 CE) and Agrippa II (27/28 CE – 100?)

(155 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] , father and son, the last Herodian kings. The brief reign of Agrippa I, grandson of Herod, is a hiatus in the progressive Roman annexation of all of Palestine. He is best known for his persecution of the Church (Acts 12). After his death imperial governors again ruled Palestine. Small sections in the north and north-east were granted first to Agrippa I's brother and then to Agrippa II, who eventually acquired some territories in Galilee and also Peraea, maintaining his position until the 90s. He attempted to dissuade the Jews of Jerusalem from rebellion (Josephus, War II, …


(9,782 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Otto | Vollenweider, Samuel | Schwartz, Daniel R. | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Figal, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. Church History – V. Philosophy – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Sociology, Politics, and Law I. Old Testament 1. The concept of political freedom, which originated in the Greek polis (City cult), first appeared in Hellenistic Jewish historiography. The Stoics' concept of freedom, which contrasts inner freedom and outward constraint, has no counterpart in the OT. The OT is rooted in an internal mythological cultur…

High Priest

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Schwartz, Daniel R. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Link-Wieczorek, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics I. Old Testament Before the Exile, the Jerusalem priesthood was headed by a primus inter pares – called either הַכֹּהֵן/ hakkohen (“the priest,” e.g. 1 Kgs 4:2; 2 Kgs 11:9; 12:8*) or כֹּהֵן הָרֹש/ kohen hāroš (“chief priest,” cf. 2 Kgs 25:18 par. Jer. 52:24) –, but not by a high priest. The term הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדֹל/ hakkohen haggādol (“high priest”) is securely ¶ attested only after the Exile; it emphasizes the importance of the office (Num 35:25, 28 [P; cf. Lev 21:10; Josh 20:6]; …


(166 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] (son of Aristobulus II), the last Hasmonean monarch. After Pompey the Great conquered Jerusalem in 63 bce and appointed Hyrcanus as ethnarch and high priest, Antigonus was sent, along with his father and his family, to Rome. Over the next two decades he participated in his family's incessant rebellions against Rome and Hyrcanus II. His hour finally came with the Parthian invasion of the Roman East. In 40 bce the Parthians conquered Palestine, took Hyrcanus II captive and installed Antigonus as king. Antigonus mutilated …

Antiochus III and IV

(476 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] (the Great; died 187 bce) and IV (Epiphanes; died 164 bce, Elymais), father and son, were Seleucid kings in Syria. Antiochus III reigned from 223 bce until his death and was able to enlarge the borders of his kingdom greatly: his "Anabasis" of the years 212-205, to Armenia, Iran, Bactria, India, and Arabia, won him the title "the Great." In 200 bce he took Palestine from the Ptolemies (Ptolemaic dynasty) in the Fifth Syrian War. In the 190s Antiochus entered Thrace and mainland …

Alexander Jannaeus

(162 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] (Jonathan, 103–76 bce), Hasmonean king of Judea and high priest, son of Hyrcanus. After successfully surviving Cleopatra III's and Ptolemy IX Lathyrus's invasions of Palestine at the outset of his reign, Alexander embarked on ambitious campaigns to expand the borders of the Hasmonean kingdom, since the kingdoms of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the Seleucids were weakened and Rome was still distant (Tacitus, Historiae 5.8.3). The 80s bce witnessed a long civil war, in which Alexander's leaning toward the …

Pontius Pilatus

(343 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[English Version] Pontius Pilatus, fünfter röm. Statthalter der Provinz Judäa (Palästina). P. war Flavius Josephus zufolge 26 n.Chr., möglicherweise jedoch schon i.J. 19 von Tiberius ernannt worden und war ungefähr bis zum Tode des Tiberius i.J. 37 im Amt. In der sog. Pilatusinschrift aus Caesarea (dazu zuletzt Alföldy) wird sein Titel als »praefectus Iudaeae« angegeben. Die Bewertung seiner Amtszeit hängt davon ab, ob man die allg. Aussage des Tacitus (Historiae V 9,2) zugrunde legt, wonach »[in …